Scoliosis in adults and children: symptoms, causes, classification
Scoliosis is a curvature of the spine, although it should normally be absolutely smooth.And if the doctor sees a deviation in any direction, even of small intensity, he diagnoses scoliosis.Table of contents: General information on scoliosis Causes of scoliosis development Scoliosis degrees
Overview of scoliosis
The disease under consideration is of two types: C-shaped scoliosis( right and left-sided scoliosis) and S-shaped scoliosis.To treat scoliosis will take a long time - it's a painstaking work, but with due regard to the problem, a complete correction of the projection of the spine is possible. Most often the curvature of the spine is diagnosed in children - 80% of the recorded scoliosis falls precisely on the children's age.This is due to the growth of bones, which is activated at school age.This factor is associated with incorrect posture, a violation in the position when working with books / notebooks, wearing a backpack or bags with textbooks on one shoulder, a sedentary lifestyle, sleeping on too soft mattresses.
But it's easy to cope with the curvature of the spine only if you regularly exercise, visit doctors, visit masseurs and study at home.Scoliosis never appears suddenly, and the development of pathology usually does not happen swiftly.If the curvature of the spine begins in childhood, the child can voice complaints about fatigue and pain in the back or legs during long walking / running.Parents should pay attention to this, even if other symptoms of the disease in question are not observed.
The danger of the disease under consideration is not only a cosmetic defect, it is an orthopedic pathology that provokes the following consequences:
- vertebrae displacement;
- infringement of nerve endings;
- appearance of spinal / vertebral hernia;
- regular headaches;
- narrowing of the blood vessels;
- deficiency of oxygen supply;
- disturbance in metabolic processes.
For women, the risk of scoliosis is the possible violation of the menstrual cycle, the shift of the genitals, and violations in the hormonal balance.The result can be female infertility.By the way, the question of bearing a child and its birth in scoliosis of severe development is solved only by a doctor's consultation - too many dangerous factors that can lead to deterioration of the woman's health and / or miscarriages and spontaneous abortions in the early stages of pregnancy.
Causes of scoliosis development
The main cause of curvature of the spine is weakening of the back muscles.This happens with a sedentary lifestyle, so it is not surprising that the scoliosis spread in the last 20 years to all age groups of patients.It is very important to understand that scoliosis can develop due to incorrect posture - especially this factor provokes the curvature of the spine in childhood. If adults wear heavy things / objects, do not do physical exercises and are forced to spend a long time at a computer or documents, the development of scoliosis is also inevitable.
Degrees of scoliosis
In medicine, several degrees of the disease are distinguished, which have distinctive features and are quickly diagnosed by radiographic examination of the patient.
Scoliosis of the 1st degree
This is the minimal curvature of the spine, with the X-ray examination the doctor will determine the deviation of the spine from the axis no more than 10 degrees.Actually, every person has at least a slight deviation of the spine from the axis - an absolutely symmetrical arrangement of organs and bones is not the norm.
If scoliosis of the first degree is diagnosed in children at school age, then this is the signal for emergency measures to prevent the development of more complex degrees of the disease.But it is necessary to know - exactly 1 degree of curvature of the spine is most quickly corrected / corrected. Symptoms of scoliosis of the 1st degree are pronounced:
- the shoulders and head of the patient are lowly lowered;
- one shoulder noticeably higher than the other;
- figure looks asymmetrical.
Treatment of a scoliosis of 1 degree consists in carrying out of massage and special physical exercises.
Scoliosis of the 2nd degree
At this stage of development of the curvature of the spine on the radiographic image, the deviation from the axis is determined by 11-30 degrees( according to VD Chaklin).This degree of scoliosis is serious, because the further progression of the disease is swift.
Important: in polyclinics can diagnose scoliosis of the second degree without performing an X-ray examination of and consulting an orthopedist is a violation of the diagnostic measure.The fact is that often for scoliosis take kyphosis( stoop), although this is absolutely two different diseases.Therefore, it is recommended to undergo additional examination from a narrow specialist - for example, an orthopedist.Symptoms of scoliosis of the 2nd degree:
- slight protrusion of the breast;
- marked asymmetry in the waist and neck;
- one shoulder is much higher than the other;
- when the body tilted downwards, it is clearly seen that the spine deviates from the axis to the left or right side.
The patient will complain of fatigue with long-term walking, they can not stay in one position for long, and for a night's sleep they choose a semi-sitting posture.Treatment of scoliosis of the 2 nd degree is not limited only to gymnastics and massage at home - consultations of specialists, sanatorium-and-spa treatment, application of physiotherapy procedures will be required.
Scoliosis of 3rd degree
In this case we are talking about a serious curvature of the spine, in which the deviation from the axis is 31-60 degrees.The third degree of scoliosis is not only the protrusion of the ribs, the hump and the weakening of the muscles. Symptoms of scoliosis of the 3rd degree:
- shortness of breath;
- impossibility of lifting on the stairs;
- pain in the peritoneum and epigastrium( anatomical location of the stomach).
With the third degree of scoliosis, the trunk is deflected towards the main scoliotic arch.There is a significant curvature of the spine in the frontal plane with a compensatory arc, pronounced deformation of the thorax and a large costal hump.In the treatment of scoliosis of the third degree, patients are assigned to wear a special corset, and anti-inflammatory drugs may be used.They are necessary to alleviate the condition of the patient - with such a strong curvature of the spine, infringement of nerve endings occurs, which provokes an intense pain syndrome.
Scoliosis 4 degrees
The angle of scoliosis is over 60 degrees.This is the most severe form of the disease. Symptoms of scoliosis of the fourth degree:
- hump is pronounced - it is noticeable to the naked eye;
- muscles of abdomen and back strongly stretch and weaken - the patient can not keep the trunk evenly;
- body tilts to any one side.
In this situation, medical help is absolutely necessary - this is not a cosmetic defect, but a serious orthopedic pathology, which must be treated with the use of modern technologies.There is a violation of the heart and lungs.
Scoliosis and army
Note: above shows the clinical and radiological classification of scoliosis according to VD Chaklin.However, for citizens of Ros with the of the Ilya Federation of draft age, the question of conscription is decided on the basis of the RF Government Decree No. 565 of 04.07.2013 "On Approval of the Regulations on Military Medical Examination", according to which the following roentgenologic classification is accepted:
- Scoliosis of the first degree.The angle of scoliosis is 1 ° - 10 °.
- Scoliosis of the second degree.The angle of scoliosis is 11 ° - 25 °.
- Scoliosis of the third degree.The angle of scoliosis is 26 ° - 50 °.
- Scoliosis of the fourth degree.Angle of scoliosis & gt;50.
Features of scoliosis in childhood
Scoliosis in children is very easy to determine for the parents themselves, which makes it possible to timely treat and avoid the progression of the disease. Symptoms of scoliosis in children:
- the child begins to stoop;
- one shoulder above the other;
- receives complaints of rapid fatigue;
- with the torso tilted downwards there is a slight deviation of the spinal column from the norm.
Most often, children are diagnosed with scoliosis 1 degree - doctors call it "school scoliosis."This is the easiest stage of the disease, therefore it is easy to cope with medical measures with it.Necessarily need to get advice from an orthopedic doctor, closely monitor how the child is sitting / standing, adjust his posture.
Features of scoliosis in adults
Adulthood in adults is always acquired pathology.Scoliosis of 1 degree develops extremely rarely at this age, doctors more often diagnose scoliosis of the 2nd degree. Ironically, men acquire this disease while serving in the army, which is facilitated by:
- strong physical activity;
- rest on the "armored" grid( beds can hardly be called orthopedic);
- incorrect posture during sleep.
It is noteworthy that if a young man with an absolutely healthy spine has come to the army, then within 6-12 months he can be diagnosed with a scoliosis of 1 degree, without conducting a specific examination. Scoliosis of the 2nd degree is diagnosed in 25% of the military - they have either been drafted into the army with a curvature of the spine, or have disposable factors to this pathology.
In general, the curvature of the spine is more common in men - they are forced to work more physically.But in women, scoliosis in different degrees of development is diagnosed quite often.For example, scoliosis of the 1-2 degree can develop during pregnancy - the displacement of the spine is due to the severity of the child being born.
If scoliosis develops during pregnancy, then it will be very difficult to get rid of it.This is due to the fact that the young mother has no time to engage in her own health - all her powers are aimed at caring for the baby.
Interesting facts about scoliosis
Many believe that the curvature of the spine can be avoided if you exercise regularly and strengthen your back muscles.This is true, but only partially - even if a person is a super sportsman, but the posture is broken, nothing can prevent the development of the curvature of the spine.One more thing - the townsfolk believe that the usual morning exercises can correct scoliosis of the first degree.This is not true - you will need to perform specially designed exercises.Massage will help return the spine to its place - it is.But you need to clarify - the results will be visible only when carrying out complex therapy against scoliosis of 1-2 degrees.
If the scoliosis of 3-4 degrees is diagnosed, then corsets and medications can not be dispensed with.If you take scoliosis seriously, take timely methods of treatment, hold supportive therapy, then this pathology will not provoke any consequences.Otherwise, not only does the appearance of a person deteriorate, but also the quality of his life.More information on the causes, symptoms and methods of diagnosing scoliosis you will get by viewing this video review:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.