Deformation of the foot: treatment and prevention
The foot is the support of the body.Due to its structure, it is capable of withstanding significant loads.But the peculiarity of the structure of the foot is that changes in any of its departments entail the transformation of other structures.Deformities of the foot lead to changes in gait, rapid fatigue of the legs and restriction of motor activity, up to disability.Table of contents:
Types of foot deformities
Deformation of the foot is called changing its shape.Soft foot tissues are very elastic and supple.Recall Ancient China, as a result of the tradition of bandaging the feet and walking in small shoes, the foot was significantly deformed in girls, sometimes enough that the woman lost the ability to move around.In ancient China, such a deformation of the feet was considered a sign of belonging to a higher society.Fortunately, these times with their harsh traditions have sunk into oblivion and now the girls' legs are not subjected to violent deformation.
Deformities of the foot are congenital and acquired.A variety of factors contribute to the change in the shape of the foot: from hereditarily conditioned characteristics of the foot structures to the transferred diseases and way of life.
- Hollow stop;
- Valgus deformation of the first toe( synonym hallux valgus);
- Varus deformation of the fifth toe( synonym - Taylor deformation);
- Hammer-shaped deformation of fingers.
Clubfoot is often a congenital pathology, there is one case of such deformation for a thousand newborns.The clubfoot may be one-sided, although more often there is still a bilateral deformation.
Acquired clubfoot arises against the background of foot injuries, paralysis of the lower extremities, deep burns in this area. Clinically clubfoot is manifested by the following features:
- Bringing the distal foot;
- Equinus - flexion of the foot;
- Supination - turning the foot inside.
Depending on the severity of the above, light, medium and heavy deformation are distinguished.
The walk in people with a similar disease is peculiar: they move in small steps, rearranging the given stops one above the other with a few withdrawn and rotated sideways hips.When walking, all the load falls on the outside of the foot.
Because of the displacement of the center of gravity in these patients, transverse lordosis increases, and the knee joints re-divide and deform.
In the foot, the cross and longitudinal vaults are distinguished.They play the role of shock absorber, saving the spine and internal organs from shaking during movement.Vaults are held in the necessary position by bones, ligaments and muscles.Flattening is characterized by the omission of arches.The causes of the development are a decrease in the elasticity of the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot.
A flat foot is congenital and acquired.Acquired flat feet develops due to chronic overload of feet, after rickets, injuries, paralysis of the lower limb and occurs much more often than congenital.It should be noted that many children have signs of flat feet at an early age.This feature is due to the fact that the longitudinal arch is formed by the age of seven.With age, the flatness of the flat feet decreases.Thus, by the age of 9, only 5-7% of children remain deformed.
Flattening is transverse and longitudinal.Transverse is characterized by an increase in the distance between the heads of the metatarsal bones.Thus, the load is distributed incorrectly, but focuses on the front of the foot.The flexors of the toes are in increased tension because of which the fingers become hammer-shaped.Another symptom of transverse flatfoot is the development of valgus deviation of the first finger( hallux valgus).In the case of longitudinal flatfoot, the longitudinal arch is flattened, because of which the foot does not touch the floor partially, but practically with the entire area of the sole.
There are three degrees of flatfoot, which are set taking into account the height and angle of the arch.At the initial stage, patients can only note the rapid fatigue of the foot and tenderness of the feet, while the neglected stages of flatfoot are accompanied by pain, violation of posture and gait.
A hollow stop is a deformation in which the height of the longitudinal arch is increased.We can say that a hollow foot is the opposite of a flat foot, when the vault is on the contrary flattened.The development of this deformation is caused by diseases of the neuromuscular apparatus( cerebral palsy, polyneuropathy, etc.), fractures of the talus or heel bone, burns of the foot. The signs of a hollow foot are:
- Heel suppression( turning inwards);
- Pronation of the front of the foot;
- Highly raised arch.
With severe deformation, the foot rests only on the heel of the hump and the head of the metatarsal bones, with the middle part of the foot not touching the ground at all.
The feet are spread out in the region of the bones of the bones of the metatarsals, which causes corns in these areas of the skin.Over time, the fingers deform and acquire a hammer-shaped or clawlike shape.People with a hollow foot express complaints about fatigue of the feet, their soreness.
Valgus deformation of the first finger
The valgus deformation of the first finger( in the Latin hallux valgus) is a common disease, popularly referred to as a "cone on the foot."Such deformation of the foot can also be congenital or acquired.But still often the disease occurs already in adulthood.Valgus deformation of the first finger is often observed in tandem with a transverse flatfoot.
With hallux valgus, the first finger in the metatarsal-phalanx is curved, when the phalanges are located at an angle to each other.The protuberance of the phalanx sideways visually looks like a lump.
With hallux valgus, the second finger is superimposed on top of the first one, and if the deformation is significantly distorted, the third finger is superimposed on the second finger.As the first finger is deflected, the ligaments and the capsule of the metatarsal-phalanx are stretched, which promotes subluxation.In addition, the articular bag develops inflammation - bursitis.This condition is accompanied by redness and swelling in the area of the metatarsophalangeal joint.People with hallux valgus feel pain in the area of the first finger.
Varian deviation of the fifth finger( Taylor strain)
Taylor's deformation is also known as a "tailor's foot", as this deformation has arisen among members of this profession due to crossing the leg and leaning on the lateral surface of the foot during operation.
This disease is characterized by a curvature of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe, as a result of which the formation of a "lump" forms at the base of the little finger.A person with a similar problem is concerned about the puffiness of the little finger, its redness, soreness, rapid fatigue of the legs.Very often the varus of the fifth finger is accompanied by a hallux valgus.
Often, hammer-shaped fingers are encountered in combination with other types of deformities of the foot: transverse flatfoot or hallux valgus.Hammer-shaped fingers can also form as a result of cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis.
Such a deformation of the toes occurs as a result of increased tension of the extensor muscles of the finger and overstretch of the flexor muscles.Against the backdrop of such changes, the proximal phalanges of the fingers re-flex and the middle and distal phalanges are bent as much as possible.In metatarsophalangeal joints subluxations occur, and later develops deforming osteoarthritis.Soon, there is pain in the fingers and feet, because of what a person actually turns to a doctor.
Treatment of foot deformities
Treatment in the initial stages can be limited to the use of conservative methods. These methods of treatment include:
- Therapeutic gymnastics;
- Physiotherapy( paraffin baths, electromyostimulation, mud cure);
- Warm foot baths;
- Use of orthopedic insoles, liners, shoes;
A repression of is the forcible removal of a deformed foot by hand into its anatomical position.After that, the leg is fixed with dressings.But it is not always possible to eliminate all the components of the deformation by only rarepressions.
Important! Treatment of foot deformities in toddlers should be undertaken as early as possible, because at a young age the tissues are very plastic and are able to be reconstructed with the correct position of the foot.Accordingly, the older the child, the harder it is to heal.
In cases of severe deformation, when the disease worsens the quality of life of a person, surgical treatment is performed. There are such types of operations:
- Operations on soft tissues of the foot;
- Operations on bones;
- Combined operations.
You can prevent the development of foot deformities with the help of certain recommendations. Prevention should be carried out from the first years of life of the baby and should include:
- Strengthening the muscles that hold the arch with physical exercises;
- Forming the correct gait;
- Weight control;
- Selection of suitable footwear;
- Wearing orthopedic insoles.
As for adults, they need to remember that overweight and wearing tight, uncomfortable shoes contribute to deforming the foot.Therefore, you need to wear comfortable shoes and control weight - these are full-fledged measures to prevent deformities of the foot.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer