Affective states: concept, types, signs
Affect - emotional experiences of an intense nature that arise when a sudden danger arises.They are always associated with pronounced manifestations of motor or organic character.
Affective states can present a real danger, both for the person himself and for the people around him.It is explained simply - when emotion a person almost completely loses control over himself, his behavior, his consciousness literally "narrows" and he does not understand, does not realize at all what is happening.Affect states can be expressed in different forms.Contents: Fear Horror Phobias Wrath Frustration
This state is considered an unconditioned reflex response to any danger, which is expressed in a change in the rhythm of the vital activity of the whole organism.Fear is seen as a biological defense mechanism that has arisen in animals - in humans, this instinct remains, albeit in some altered form.
Most often, fear manifests itself by lowering the muscle tone and lack of any facial expressions on the face( it takes the form of a mask).But there are other manifestations of fear - screaming, running away, grimaces, doctors classify it as a powerful sympathetic discharge.Characteristic signs of fear are dry mouth( this, incidentally, is the cause of hoarseness and muffledness in the voice), a sharp increase in blood sugar, a sudden jump in blood pressure.
During the research it was noted that fear can cause not only biological causes, but also social ones - for example, loss of results of multi-day labor, the risk of getting public censure.
This affective state is always a continuation, the highest degree of fear.Moreover, the horror develops quite differently to the principle and has its own distinctive characteristics. You can distinguish the following:
- disorganization of consciousness - people call it insane fear, when in the brain any little things come up, some episodes from life, absolutely untimely thoughts;
- numbness - doctors suggest that this appears because of a sudden release of a large amount of adrenaline into the body;
- muscular excitation of a disorderly nature( motor storm) - a person starts to fuss, somewhere to run and stop abruptly.
Note: in a state of horror, a person can almost completely lose control of himself, by his actions.For example, he is not able to properly assess the danger, defense can be excessive.
Very often the approaching danger of causing fear and horror, which develop into aggression - this can be observed in the event of an imminent danger of violence, when the alleged victim literally tears the offender.That is why the affective state in criminal law is always a mitigating moment.
They suffer from people who have exaggerated ideas about the danger.Moreover, phobias can be absolutely different - some are panic afraid of spiders, some can not climb even on a stool because of fear of heights, some are really afraid of microbes and so on: it is simply impossible to list all the known phobias within the framework of the article.
Very often phobias do not present any danger to humans and surrounding people, but if such a condition is present in a person with a weakened psyche, then his behavior can also be unpredictable.Quite often psychiatrists encounter patients who, against their own phobias, commit crimes.
If fear is considered as an affective state, then it can be characterized as the body's reaction to the imminent danger from a stronger person.But if the threat of danger comes from a weak person, then it can cause anger in a person.This is a very dangerous condition, because it is with him that a person is most often inclined to commit rash, impulsive actions.
Anger is always accompanied by menacing facial expressions and posture of attack.Man in anger is not able to objectively and logically reason, act consciously.
Note: anger and fear may not be an affective disorder, often people manage to cope with such strong emotions and begin to reason rationally.In this case, the outburst of anger will be short-lived, fear also quickly disappears and consciousness begins to work in the usual mode - no rash acts will be committed.
This is a negative emotional state that can arise due to the appearance of unexpected obstacles on the way to achieve their goals, the collapse of hopes.It is frustration is considered the most dangerous affective state from the point of view of psychiatry!The fact is that if a person has an unstable psyche and suffers from an irreparable loss, then frustration can degenerate into a depressed state.And it is already accompanied by a weakening of memory, an inability to think logically - this is a significant disorganization of consciousness with a prolonged course.
Note: frustration is very difficult to diagnose, because the person himself in this state can not determine the cause of his condition.He begins to independently seek a way out of the current situation, does not turn to specialists, can generally "fall" out of the real world( goes into the world of dreams), in some cases in his mental development returns to the initial stage( "falls into childhood").
Affective conditions are very often harmless to humans.But if he already has even small disturbances of the psyche, then it will be necessary to observe the specialists.The affects described in this article can lead to severe mental illness, and such patients already present a great danger to others.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category