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Benign tumors of the large intestine: symptoms, removal, prognosis and possible risks

rectal cancer

benign colon tumors are small growths of cells whose type corresponds to the type of body cells from which data tumors formed( in this case - the cells of the colon).They are formed from the inner layer of the colon and protrude into the lumen.

This type of tumors is quite common, and most often occurs in people with overweight, whose age has reached 50 years.Most benign tumors of the large intestine are located in the rectum( more than 50%).Some tumor cells may lose their full or partial differentiation.In this case, the tumor degenerates from benign to malignant.

Contents: Symptoms Types of benign tumors of the large intestine polyps colon Hereditary polyposis, causes of disease diagnosis of the disease Treatment Complications and consequences of the disease prevention

symptoms

often benign tumor detected by chance during the survey relatedWith another disease, since this disease often occurs asymptomatically.

striking sign of disease may be the following states:

  • When emptying the rectum to feces visible streaks of blood.
  • Painful sensation in the rectum during emptying.
  • Localized in the lateral parts of the abdomen and the anus area of ​​the pain, which intensify at the time of defecation.They wear noisy or cramping, subside after defecation, almost completely removed with the use of enzyme preparations and the use of a warm water bottle.
  • Frequent constipation or vice versa - loose stools, vomiting, bloating.
  • Reduces the amount of hemoglobin needed to carry oxygen from the lungs to the blood cells.Accompanied by painful sensations, false urges to emptying( tenesmus).
  • No cancer intoxication characterized by fast fatigue, weakness, severe sweating, losing weight and loss of appetite.

Types of benign large bowel tumors

Several types of benign lesions may occur in different areas of the large intestine.

These include:

  • Polip lipomas( adipose tissue),
  • lymphangioma( lymph vessels),
  • leiomyoma( from smooth muscle)
  • hemangioma( from vascular tissue),
  • fibroids( From cells of fibromatous tissue),
  • neurinoma( from nerve cells),
  • polyps.

colonic polyps

cells lost their differentiation( tumor cells do not correspond to the tissue cells, from which they are formed) form benign adenomatous tumor colon - polyps.This is one of the most common neoplasms.

They come in three types:

  • tubular adenoma( tubular), which are tumors with a dense and smooth surface pink.
  • Insect-like, for which branch-like outgrowths are characteristic.
  • Tubular-villous.

Crohn If any tissue element of normal tissue develops disproportionately, of the gammarthrom arises - a knotty growth of the tumor.

For adults, the most common is the hyperplastic polyps , located mainly in the rectum.Tumors are small in size.

As a result of acute inflammatory disease, inflammatory polyp , which is a neoplasm from the intestinal mucosa, may occur.This type of polyp is attached to the wall of the bowel in various ways and can be of different shapes.

Tumors having a slightly elongated or rounded shape, the surface of which can be velvety or covered with papillomas, is called by villous tumors of .

Diffuse polyposis( appearance of several proliferating polyps) can be of two types:

  1. True( or family) - it is characterized by a large number of rapidly progressing polyps( from hundreds to several thousand).The disease is hereditary.
  2. Secondary - it occurs due to the inflammatory reaction of the intestine to damage to various types of colon.

Polyps, depending on their number, are divided into:

  • single;
  • multiple( with two or more).

Hereditary polyposis, causes of

Polyposis intestines

The process of cell renewal of the intestinal mucosa is normal.In the presence of any irregularities, uneven renewal leads to the appearance of tumors of benign type.

Factors that play an important role in the development of neoplasms:

  • Heredity.If an anamnesis of relatives indicates colon polyposis, the risk of developing benign tumors increases.
  • Improper diet associated with excessive intake of food containing animal fat and lack of fiber, which is present in large quantities in vegetables, fruits, bread and others.
  • Constipation, which takes place for a long time, and their treatment was performed by irritating mucous cenoids.
  • Age exceeding 50 years.
  • Low motor activity( hypodynamia).
  • Smoking of tobacco products.
  • Various bowel diseases

To pathologies that can lead to the development of benign tumors of the large intestine, include:

  • Crohn's disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most often concerns the colon.The disease is inflammatory and affects all layers of the intestinal wall.
  • Nonspecific ulcerative colitis, characteristic mainly for the colon in its mucosa.It represents numerous ulcerative inflammatory formations.
  • Colitis, which is a disease of the mucous layer of the colon of an inflammatory nature.

Important: The faster the patient consults a doctor, the higher the chances of reducing the risk of complications and maintaining health.An oncologist is engaged in treatment of the disease.

Diagnosis of the disease

To determine the pathology and the correct diagnosis:

  • Polip An analysis of the history of patient complaints and illnesses( the presence of pain, the presence of blood, stools, constipation) and what these symptoms are associated with by the patient.
  • An analysis of a patient's medical history( the presence of various intestinal diseases, such as ulcerative colitis with a large number of ulcers in the mucous layer of the intestine, Crohn's disease, other diseases).Also takes into account the lifestyle of the patient, the quality of nutrition, motor activity, the presence of bad habits( alcoholism, smoking).
  • Analysis of family history( whether there is a disease of the large intestine in the relatives of the patient).
  • The data obtained as a result of an objective examination of the patient( often uninformative, but for large and multiple polyps characterized by pale skin and the presence of blood in the feces).
  • Instrumental and laboratory data obtained on the basis of:
    • General blood test( check of hemoglobin level, which decreases as a result of blood loss in case of tumor damage).
    • Fecal analysis with a microscope for the presence of blood in it.
    • Studies of the stomach, esophagus and duodenum with the aid of an endoscope.
    • Investigations of the rectum for the presence of neoplasms with a finger.
    • Irrigoscopy - X-ray examination of the intestine using contrast.
    • Introduction to the rectum of a flexible tube for examination and detection of neoplasms( sigmoidoscopy).
    • Colonoscopy - a similar method as described above.The main difference between this is that the device transmits a video signal to the monitor.This procedure also allows you to take tissue on a biopsy and remove the tumor directly during the examination.

Treatment of disease

Drug therapy for benign tumors of the large intestine is considered ineffective, therefore, they resort to surgery.

Polip

Endoscopic equipment is used to treat single formations.A flexible endoscope tube containing a loop electrode for capturing the tumor and removing the pedicle is inserted into the anus of the patient .Removal of large tumors is carried out in several stages.To detect malignant transformation of cells, the removed tumor tissue is sent to the study under a microscope.The described method is well tolerated by the patient, while the human performance is restored the next day.

Diffuse polyposis is treated by the method of total resection of the large intestine .This is necessary because there is a high risk of malignant tumors.After removal of the colon, the patient's anus is connected to the end of the small intestine.

Control endoscopy is prescribed one year after removal of large polyps or multiple neoplasms of .If polyps are again detected, they are removed.In their absence, the next study using a colonoscope is performed after 3 years.

Possible complications and their consequences

Polip

If the treatment is not performed in a timely manner, the following complications may occur:

  • The appearance of bleeding from the rectum, due to damage to the tumor tissue.
  • Rebirth of benign cells into malignant cells.
  • Perforation of the intestinal wall( opening of the opening).As a consequence, there is inflammation of the abdominal cavity( peritonitis).
  • Complete or partial obstruction of the intestine due to overlap of the lumen of the intestine by large neoplasms.
  • Acute enterocolitis( inflammation of the intestinal wall).This disease progresses very quickly and can lead to death.
  • Anemia( decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood).
  • So-called "stool stones" - solid and dense fecal masses, resulting from prolonged constipation.

Prevention of the disease

No specific prophylaxis of this disease is provided.

However, experts recommend:

  • Eat right( limit the amount of fried, smoked, spicy and fatty foods, reduce the consumption of coffee, fast food and soda).
  • Increase the number of foods in the diet containing fiber, dietary fiber( eat vegetables, fruits, buckwheat and corn cereals, whole grain bread, sour-milk products and vegetable oils).
  • Increase the amount of liquid consumed to 2 liters per day.
  • To be examined by a gastroenterologist with the use of an endoscope at least once a year( especially for patients who reached the age of 45-50 years old.)
  • Reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages, quit smoking

Sovinskaya Elena, Medical reviewer


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