First aid for fractures of bones
The most serious injury is not without reason is a fracture.First aid provided on time and in the required amount can reduce the risk of complications, reduce the time of disability, and sometimes save a person from disability or death.To do this, you just need to immediately ensure the peace of the affected bones, anesthetize and deliver the injured to the hospital.Table of Contents: Types of fractures Symptoms of fracture First aid for fractures First aid for closed fracture First aid for open fracture What to do in case of fracture in a child
Types of fractures
A fracture is a violation of bone integrity( complete or incomplete)Arising under the influence of physical strength or pathology.Distinguish:
- According to the position of the fragments relative to each other:
- with offset;
- without bias.
- By completeness of the fracture:
- complete when the bone is divided into 2 or more parts;
- incomplete, or crack, in which the bone breaks, but does not completely break.
- Based on the presence of skin damage:
In fact, the classification of fractures is very extensive, but the knowledge of all its nuances is only necessary for trauma specialists, especially since they do not affect the rules of first aid at the scene in any way.
Symptoms of fracture
There are several signs, the presence of which with a high degree of probability allows you to suspect a fracture.
The first of these is pain that occurs directly at the time of injury, aggravated by the movement of the affected limb or when it is felt.
The next symptom is functional impairment.In fractures of the bones of the legs, a person can not stand on the injured limb, with a hand injury - it can not use it.Fracture of the ribs does not allow to breathe adequately, and with injuries to the spine, the victim often loses the ability to move at all.
Deformation is a symptom that is relevant primarily for fractures of the extremities.The presence of changes in the shape of the leg or arm clearly indicates the displacement of the fragments.
Pathological mobility is the fourth symptom that characterizes a fracture.Sweat refers to the mobility of the limb in a place where it can not be found in a healthy person.
Crepitation is a sound phenomenon that occurs when rubbing bone fragments against each other.It is heard as a crunch when the limb moves.
Not all of these signs appear at all in the fracture.There are, for example, punctured fractures, in which one part of the bone, as it were, enters another.There may be no deformation and crepitations.Compression fracture of the spine is a variant of this trauma: sometimes the hours pass until its basic symptoms appear and the person consults a doctor.Usually, a visit to the emergency room is caused by the growth of signs of damage to the nerve roots or the spinal cord itself( skin of the hands and feet become numb, weakness in the limbs, etc.)
First aid for fractures should begin immediately, as the sharp ends of the bone fragmentsCan damage the main arteries, cut large nerve trunks, trauma can cause shock.
First aid for fractures
The scope of first aid measures depends on a number of factors:
- if the fracture is open or closed;
- is the only one or there are multiple damages;
- whether life indicators are stable;
- which bones were damaged.
First aid with closed fracture
Securing the injured and the rescuer is a priority.It should be ensured that there is no threat to the health or life of others, if necessary, moving the injured person to a safe place.
Immobilization is the best way to prevent further deterioration of a person's condition.Any displacement of bone fragments with respect to each other causes severe pain, can lead to a drop in blood pressure, rupture of blood vessels and nerves.Therefore, it is necessary to ensure complete immobility of the affected segment of the body.
Fractures of the extremities
The easiest way to do this is with fractures of the extremities.For immobilization use either special tires, or improvised - boards, sticks, cardboard, you can even take the glossy magazines twisted into the tube.The tire should lie so as to cover at least two joints adjacent to the broken bone - the upper and lower. There are only two exceptions:
- a fracture of the hip, in which the tire should begin above the hip joint and end below the ankle;
- fracture of the radius in a typical place( in the region of the wrist joint), where there is no need to embrace the elbow with the tire.
It is not possible to impose a tire on the bare skin: it is better to have at least one layer of cloth between it and the limb - clothing or a rag.Pribintovyvat it is necessary all over.In exceptional cases it is enough to tie it in above and below the fracture site - this is better than not immobilizing at all.
Attention! Never attempt to straighten a damaged limb!This can aggravate injury, cause tissue damage and shock.If the limb is curved in the fracture site, you should put a roller crocheted from the clothes under it and then only pribintovyvat tire.
Alternative ways of immobilization
There are situations where an improvised tire can not be made from.In this case, the anatomical features of the body should be used.So, with a fracture of the leg, the affected limb is bandaged to a healthy one, and with a fractured hand, to the body.
Immobilization here is quite simple - the injured finger is bandaged to the next healthy one all over.
Probably the only fracture that does not require fixation.Previously, with this injury, the victim was put pressure bandage on the chest.Currently, this method was abandoned, as it worsens the course of the trauma, contributing to the development of pneumonia on the background of a decrease in respiratory function.
Fracture of pelvic bones
Immobilization is not performed.The victim should be laid on his back, placing a tight roll under his knees and spreading the patient's thighs to the sides( the "frog pose", in which the person will remain for the entire restoration period).
This injury is considered the most dangerous.The slightest displacement of fragments of the vertebra may lead to the intersection of the nerve roots or the spinal cord.This will make a person disabled, and in some cases may kill him.If a person says that he does not feel the hands or feet, if he fell from a height or got into a car accident - you should suspect that he has a fracture of the spine.Such a victim is laid on his back on a board the length of his height, securely tied and transported with all the precautions to the hospital.
Note: is placed on the back on a rigid, non-deflecting plane( position "b" in the figure) with injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine of the patient.If there is no possibility to create a non-deflecting plane or there is a large wound in the lumbar region, the victim is placed on a soft stretcher on the abdomen( position "a" in the figure).
After installing the tire, the victim who is conscious is given the most powerful painkiller that is available( dexketoprofen, ketorolac, baralgin).This is necessary in order to reduce the chance of traumatic shock.Helps to anaesthetize and cold attached to the site of the fracture.A bubble with cold water, an ice pack, a bottle of a soft drink extracted from a refrigerator - any of these items reduces the degree of edema and the volume of the hematoma and reduces the intensity of pain.
First aid for open fracture
Traumatologists say "If an open fracture is first treated with a wound, then we deal with a fracture."This approach is optimal, because as long as you look for material for the tire or give the patient painkillers, it may just bleed.
With an open fracture, first aid is to immediately stop bleeding.The easiest way to deal with capillary bleeding is simply to bandage the wound and it will stop.In case of damage to the main vessels( especially the arteries), a pressure bandage is applied, and if it does not help, then a hemostatic tourniquet is placed above the wound.
For your information!
You can use anything like a rope - a rope, a tie, a belt.Lashing, wire, etc.
Rules for the harnessing:
- Apply the tourniquet always above the bleeding site:
- for shoulder, forearm or hand injuries;
- for hip injuries.The thighs or feet are on the thigh.
- Under the harness you need to lay the fabric - so you can avoid further injury to the skin.
- A note should be placed under the harness, in which the exact time of its overlay and the contact data of the person who imposed it should be indicated.
- Term of the harness - no more than 2 hours in summer and 1-1,5 hours in winter.
- If transportation of the victim is delayed, the tourniquet should be loosened every 20-30 minutes for 3-5 minutes, pressing for this period the place of bleeding gauze tampon, bandage, individual dressing package.
After complete stopping of bleeding, immobilize the injury site, anesthetize and transport the victim to the nearest medical facility.
What to do if the child has a fracture
The rules for first aid for children are similar to those described above.A detailed video-instruction for helping a child who has broken a bone is given below:
Bozbey Gennady A., ambulance doctor