Features of the diet after myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction causes the death of the tissues of the heart muscle, the cause of which is a violation of blood circulation and metabolic processes.Nutrition is not a drug in this pathology, but it can improve the patient's well-being and protect him from relapses.It is important to reduce the amount of calories consumed, salt and liquid, so as not to overload the already injured organs.Also in the diet must be products that stimulate the digestive system.Table of contents: Diet after myocardial infarction Meaning of correct nutrition after myocardial infarction Approximate menu after infarction
Diet after myocardial infarction
At different stages of the disease, the patient needs different nutrition. The doctor will assess the patient's condition and will then prescribe one of three diet options:
- Acute myocardial infarction - the first week after the attack.Recommended mashed, chopped food, the products must be boiled or cooked steamed.Do not add salt and spices to them, and you should not abuse fats.Feed the sick person in small portions up to six to seven times a day, between meals it is important to keep an interval of at least 3 hours, the food should not be hot, but not cold, and comfortable for the stomach temperature.It is equally important to limit the amount of fluid used.Completely excluded alcohol, coffee, strong tea.
- Subacute period - 10-14 days after the attack.At this stage, the diet can be administered salt, but in a limited amount - not more than 3 grams per day.The liquid is consumed in an amount of 1 liter per day, for now this is enough.It is still important to adhere to a fractional diet and not overeat, portions should be small.
- Recovery period is 18-20 days after the attack.Now you can slightly add salt dishes, but make sure that the total amount of salt does not exceed 5 grams per day.It is not necessary to turn the products into purees, they can be finely chopped or simply mashed with the addition of a small amount of vegetable or butter.The amount of liquid that can be consumed by the patient at this stage is not more than 1.2 liters.
These are only conditional dates - it all depends on the patient's condition and how he feels.If recovery is difficult, then the most sparing diet should be observed for several weeks longer.
Meaning of correct nutrition after myocardial infarction
Doctors recommend that after a myocardial infarction, do not eat food after 15 hours of the day and in any case not eat at night .Hardly a sick person will want to overeat in such a state, but, nevertheless, this process needs to be controlled. Highlights of therapeutic nutrition after myocardial infarction:
- Do not abuse salt.This substance thickens the blood, delays the fluid in the body, which is very harmful for such patients.
- Include in the diet foods rich in vitamins A, C and D. These are carrots, apples, pumpkin, spinach, peaches and apricots.
- Do not drink alcohol.Alcohol, as well as coffee, strong tea, are categorically contraindicated for those who have already had myocardial infarction.
- Restrict the consumption of fats, especially for margarine, butter, lard and dishes prepared using these products.
Doctors helped the person to survive, stabilized his condition.Now the most important thing is to support him and protect himself.
Sample menu after a heart attack
There is a list of certain products that will be especially useful in the post-infarction period.They do not overload the stomach, they are low in calories, but they are rich in vitamins and other microelements that will support the work of the heart muscle. So, that's what doctors recommend to include in the diet of a person who has suffered a heart attack:
- Cereals - oatmeal, buckwheat, millet;
- garden berries, fruits, especially citrus fruits;
- fresh vegetables, the emphasis is on making different kinds of cabbage;
- greens, spinach;
- peas, soybeans, beans, lentils;
- milk, products from it, not banned is not sharp hard cheese;
- marine fish, preferably white varieties;
- lean meat, poultry;
- dried fruits - dried apricots, figs, dates, raisins;
- whole-grain bread.
The strictest diet is observed in the first days after a heart attack .Portions are prepared quite small, all dishes are rubbed or crushed in a blender.Vegetables, cereals should be well boiled and not to salt at all.Only a day can be consumed not more than 1000 Kcal, but even this amount is reduced if the patient has excessive body weight.
Here is how the approximate menu of the "heavy" patient will look:
- 100 ml of fresh carrot juice with vegetable oil, 50 g of porridge in milk;
- 50 g boiled lean fish, half a glass of vegetable broth;
- half cup of jelly, grated small apple;
- 50 g boiled chicken or turkey without skin, half a glass of decoction of rose hips or tinctures of dried fruits;
- half a glass of curdled milk, a little puree of prune or apple;
- 100 ml of any freshly squeezed juice, better from citrus, 50 g of low-fat cottage cheese.
Further, as the patient's condition improves, it is transferred to diet No. 10 .You can increase the portions - respectively, and increase the number of calories per day.Now they can be up to 1400, but you should not forget about fractional nutrition and control the intake of fats and carbohydrates.The menu is supplemented with an omelet made from protein, low-fat sour cream and milk, vegetable salads and soups, steam cutlets and meatballs made from meat or fish.
For dessert you can eat not very sweet mousse and jelly from fruit, casserole casseroles with cottage cheese, pasta or sour cream.Recommended drinks are herbal teas, compotes and fruit drinks, pure mineral water without gas.
A detailed example scheme for feeding after a heart attack in accordance with the requirements of the therapeutic diet number 10, you can see in the table:
The right way of life plays a huge role for everyone who follows their health, particularly the heart.Strict organization of nutrition is necessary, otherwise neither medications, nor rest in the sanatorium will not have the proper effect.In many ways, the consciousness of the patient depends on how quickly he will recover and will be able to live, if not in the usual rhythm, then at least in an approximate way.That's why you must always follow a strict diet immediately after a heart attack, and monitor your diet for the rest of your life.This is one of the main pledges that it will last for more than one year.
Konev Alexander, internist