Bronchoscopy: how endoscopy of the respiratory tract is done, preparation for the procedure
The most common method of examining the pathology of the respiratory tract is bronchoscopy.Bronchoscopy is the method by which the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi is checked, and the device itself used for examination is called a bronchoscope.Through the mouth inside the patient is placed a tube, which has special devices - camera and backlight.The effectiveness of this method exceeds 97%.This indicator makes this method the best available to date.Bronchoscopes can be equipped with surgical instruments or laser equipment.In this case, they are used for medicinal purposes.Table of contents: General information on bronchoscopy Indications for bronchoscopy How bronchoscopy is done Preparing for bronchoscopy When should I see a doctor after bronchoscopy?Contraindications Virtual bronchoscopy
General information on bronchoscopy
The first study of this type was dated back to 1897.At that time, the process itself was very dangerous and painful, because the patients used cocaine as an analgesic.Initially, the bronchoscope was used to remove foreign bodies.
In 1956 the bronchoscope, it may be said, was invented anew, it became absolutely safe, but at the same time it did not acquire a more familiar form for us, remaining firm.The first flexible bronchoscope was introduced after twelve years.And a decade later, modern developments allowed to increase the resulting image to identify diseases at earlier stages.
Bronchoscopy is a name derived from two Greek words: "inspection" and "breathing throat".The device is a specific system by which the respiratory organs are studied.Its diameter ranges from 3 to 6 mm, and the length is about 60 cm. As described above, the current bronchoscopes have special devices for displaying the image on the monitor, as well as auxiliary equipment.Video from the bronchoscope can be saved for comparison with further studies in order to study the progression of the disease or pathology.
Indications for bronchoscopy
Endoscopic examination of the respiratory tract has two purposes - diagnosis and treatment.
The main indications for the examination are:
- Symptoms of swelling on the airways or organs
- Possible presence of foreign objects
- frequent dyspnea with no cardiac insufficiency or bronchial asthma
- expectorant with blood
- abscesses or cysts in the lungs
- inflammation of the respiratory organs
- recurring pneumonia
- non-standard form of the bronchi
- determination of the causes of asthma causingbronchial
- taking material for the study of reaction to antibiotics
- preparation for surgery.
How to make bronchoscopy
To ensure that the procedure for the procedure does not come as a surprise, you should read it in advance.
The study may include the following items:
- Patients undergoing bronchoscopy are placed in a specially equipped room( endoscopy room), everything must be done under the strict guidance of a specially trained physician
- . The patient is required to enter bronchodilators so that the device can easily reach the site
- . During bronchoscopyThe patient should be in a sitting or lying position on the back.It is important to be guided by safety techniques to avoid injury
- During the procedure, breathing should be frequent and superficial, so you prevent vomiting
- The bronchoscope can also be injected through the nose or mouth.Do not worry, it does not affect the ability to breathe, since the tube itself is much smaller than the airway
- You can feel the pressure in certain places, but the pain itself will not be
- The examination starts with the larynx and the glottis, Followed by a trachea and bronchi.Due to its small size, the tube will not harm your health
- When bronchoscopy, a specialist can take a piece of the necessary material for a biopsy, remove foreign bodies from the bronchi or rinse them with a special solution
- . For half an hour after the end of the procedure, you may have a feeling of numbness.For two hours after the procedure, you should not smoke or eat food
- Drugs used to suppress anxiety, reduce reaction speed, therefore it is not recommended to drive for eight hours.
- Doctors advise not to leave the medical institution immediately after the examination, only inIn this case, the medical staff will be able to track your condition
Note: should use a local anesthetic during the bronchoscopy with a flexible tube,Common variations in the apparatus are general anesthesia.
Preparation for bronchoscopy
Preparation for the procedure includes two mandatory items: the availability of additional research and direct preparation of the body.
For maximum information and safety of the study, a number of additional examinations should be performed.
- X-ray of the lungs.Its result can draw the doctor's attention to specific areas when performing bronchoscopy.
- ECG . This method will help to avoid the possibility of complications from the heart
- Give blood
- Check urea level in the blood
Your body also needs to prepare for the procedure.
To avoid unpleasant situations during and after endoscopy, simple rules should be followed:
- Be sure to tell the doctor about the available allergy to the medication and list the medications taken.Tell us about the existing diseases, including the chronic
- Do not eat for eight hours before the bronchoscopy
- On the day of the study, flatly stop smoking
- Before the procedure, cleanse the intestines, an enema or candles for this purpose
- There is a probability,That the doctor can introduce a sedative, this will help you to stay calm
Bronchoscopy should bring a towel, since it is likely that some amount of timeAfter the procedure, you will cough up blood. In bronchial asthma, you should bring an inhaler.
When should I see a doctor after bronchoscopy?
In some cases, complications may occur after bronchoscopy.The main thing is not to lose sight of them and at the time get a specialist consultation.
symptoms after endoscopy, requiring a visit to a doctor :
- prolonged coughing up blood
- chest discomfort
- unusual wheezing
Bronchoscopy is contraindicated in the following diseases:
- narrowing of the larynx and trachea of the 2nd and 3rd degree,
- III degree respiratory failure,
- exacerbation of bronchial asthma,
- aortic aneurysm,
- myocardial infarction and stroke( if they occurred less than six months before the procedure),
- violation of coagulation and blood,
- intolerance drugs for anesthesia, mental illness.
Important : is recommended to be performed later if you have: a monthly, pregnancy that is closer to the stage of delivery, an infectious disease.
It is impossible to pass bronchoscopy to those people who suffer from:
- irregular heartbeats above the third degree
- severely increased diastolic pressure
- after six months or less before the beginning of the procedure
- expansions of the aortic
In addition to these cases, people with heart disease can be treated with bronchoscopy, but only after special training.
- stabilize heart rate
- use the drug improves nutrition of the heart muscle
- normalization of pressure
- receiving sedatives or tranquilizers
- prevention of blood clots
Technology does not stand onPlace, because today, along with the usual form of examination, virtual bronchoscopy can be used.It is a special way of computed tomography of the bronchi.
Thanks to the new equipment, doctors do not have to penetrate the inside of a person to see what is happening.Now a special device together with the program simulate a three-dimensional image on the monitor.To date, this technique helps to monitor the development of bronchial oncology.But, considering all the advantages, at this stage of technological development, virtual bronchoscopy is inferior to the classical method.
Natalia Tavaluk, medical reviewer