Umbilical hernia in children: symptoms, treatment, indications for surgery
An umbilical hernia is a protrusion of the internal organs( loops of the intestine, omentum) through a defect in the abdominal wall.This is a fairly common pathology and occurs in about 12% of children.It is noteworthy that the umbilical hernia is more common among girls.Table of contents: Causes of umbilical hernia in children Symptoms of umbilical hernia in children Treatment of umbilical hernia in children
Causes of umbilical hernia in children
After the umbilical remains disappear, the umbilical cord is closed.In those cases, when there is a delay in the closure of the umbilical ring, a hernial protrusion is formed in this region. The fusion of the umbilical ring is affected by factors such as:
- Exposure to adverse factors during pregnancy( advanced infectious diseases, medication).
The effects of the above factors lead to a delay in the development of the fetus, which inhibits the development of connective and muscle tissue, which leads to an inadequate formation of the umbilical ring.
Symptoms of umbilical hernia in children
Umbilical hernia is a round or ovoid protrusion in the navel area, which is usually determined already in the period of newborn.Education can be with a pea or reach a few centimeters in diameter.To the touch, the formation resembles an air balloon, when pressed, it enters the abdominal cavity with a gurgling sound.
When the baby is in a recumbent position, the hernia itself is reset, while an unclosed umbilical ring is easily probed.More noticeable hernia becomes during crying, coughing, colic and constipation due to increased intra-abdominal pressure.
Uncomplicated umbilical hernia does not hurt and does not cause any uncomfortable sensations to the child.However, in rare cases, the umbilical hernia can be complicated by infringement.Signs of development of this complication are sudden nausea with vomiting, lack of stool, child's anxiety, tearfulness.The clamped umbilical hernia becomes more rigid and motionless.Touching the hernia in this case causes the child to cry and cry.This is a very dangerous condition, since in the clamped organ( the loop of the small intestine, the omentum) blood supply is disrupted and tissue necrosis develops.Therefore, if you experience any of the above symptoms, you should immediately contact your doctor.
Treatment of umbilical hernia in a child
When a hernia in a child, many parents begin to panic.What to do, delete?And if you delete, when?Unambiguously, in the absence of direct indications for surgical intervention, it is not necessary to hurry with the operation.Approximately 60% of children undergo self-healing in the process of growth until they achieve two to three years.
There are non-surgical auxiliary treatments that can affect the infection of the umbilical ring.However, this approach is effective only at the age of up to one year.These methods include laying on the stomach, massage and physiotherapy exercises.
Pediatricians recommend laying the baby on his stomach on a firm flat surface for fifteen minutes before feeding.You can not leave the baby in this position unattended, you can stroke over the back, rub the legs and pens.This manipulation should be done two to four times a day.
After the child reaches the age of two months, physicians can have a massage and exercise therapy.
Parents can learn massage of the abdomen and carry out this manipulation on their own. Massage is performed as follows:
- Before a meal, massage the baby's stomach clockwise with soft circular motions.
- Place your thumb on the navel and perform a vibrating motion.
- With palm, cover the navel area and with gentle pressing movements turn the palm clockwise.
- Place the palms parallel to both sides of the navel.Now put your left palm down and your right palm up.Do the same in the opposite direction.
- Fold your fingers with a pinch and press in a circular motion in the direction from the navel.
Massage can be done twice a day.These simple exercises contribute to strengthening the muscles of the abdomen and as a result of contracting the umbilical ring.
For more information about the causes of the development of umbilical hernia, symptoms of the disease, methods of treating hernia in newborns, you will receive a video review:
When is an umbolic hernia removal necessary?
- The dimensions of the hernia are more than 1.5 cm in diameter.The probability of self-healing of a hernia of this size is unlikely.
- If the hernia was formed after reaching the age of six months.
- Hernia increased in size after the child reached one or two years.
- Infringement of a hernia.
- Preservation of umbilical hernia after reaching the child of five years of age.
Excision of the umbilical hernia is a simple and safe procedure.Stepping back one or two centimeters from the base of the hernial protrusion, the surgeon dissects the skin and subcutaneous tissue.Then the hernial sac is extracted from the surrounding tissues, fixed and closer to the middle is opened in the transverse direction.The contents of the hernial sac are inspected and inserted into the abdominal cavity.After that, the neck of the bag is stitched and tied, and the hernial sac is cut off.Now the surgeon can begin to suture the aponeurosis.After that, the skin is sewn.
Thus, we can safely say that the presence of an umbilical hernia in a baby is not at all an occasion for panic.Fulfillment of the doctor's instructions gives a great chance for self-healing of a hernia in a child.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer