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Hypothyroidism in children: symptoms and treatment

Hypothyroidism in children: symptoms and treatment

In the human body, the thyroid gland "is responsible" for the course of all metabolic processes, so even a minor disruption in its work can lead to a deterioration in health.The enlargement of the thyroid gland in childhood is the first sign that a certain pathology is developing.

The child can be diagnosed with congenital goiter( as the thyroid gland is called in medicine), there may be Pendred's syndrome( genetic pathology), which is also characterized by the syndrome under consideration.But most often the enlargement of the thyroid gland indicates the development of hypothyroidism in the child - pathology, in which the required organ of the endocrine system does not produce the required amount of hormones.This pathology refers to chronic diseases, so only timely diagnosis and competent treatment can prevent the development of irreversible processes in the body.

Table of contents: Congenital hypothyroidism in children Acquired hypothyroidism How to treat hypothyroidism in children

Congenital hypothyroidism in children

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Most often, this disease is diagnosed in girls, against the background of a decrease in the production of thyroid hormones in a child in the futureThere is a delay in mental and physical development.

The following factors can be named as the causes of hypothyroidism: :

  • hypothyroidism in the mother;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormones.

Symptoms of the thyroid disease under consideration are:

  • Newborn child weighs more than 3, 5 kg;
  • jaundice, which is of a lasting nature;
  • dryness of the skin and their peeling;
  • in the nose area of ​​the baby is marked with cyanosis;
  • chronic constipation.

Congenital hypothyroidism in children

Note: , the intensive symptomatology of hypothyroidism in a newborn is manifested no earlier than on day 30 of a child's life.With this, there are difficulties with the timely diagnosis of thyroid pathology.

Acquired hypothyroidism

Thyroid disease of similar etiology begins to develop when the process of hormone formation in this organ of the endocrine system is disrupted. The causes of this pathology are:

  • inflammatory diseases of internal organs;
  • thyroid gland removal by medical indicators;
  • violation of iodine metabolism.

Symptomatic of acquired hypothyroidism:

  • marked edema of the face and upper limbs that appear regardless of the amount of fluid used;
  • the child is constantly experiencing a desire to sleep( increased drowsiness);
  • appetite is reduced, in some cases the child and completely refuses food( even his favorite foods do not inspire him);
  • the kid complains of fatigue even after a long rest;
  • arterial pressure is often reduced.

If these symptoms are present "alone," this is unlikely to indicate hypothyroidism.But if the parents note the presence of all the signs in the aggregate, then this should be the reason for the visit to the endocrinologist.Often, hypothyroidism in a child develops against the background of central nervous system disorders, the progression of neoplasms( benign / malignant tumors) or existing congenital pathologies.

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How to treat hypothyroidism in children

How to treat hypothyroidism in children This thyroid disease should be treated only under the supervision of a doctor, especially as statistics often use hormonal drugs as part of the therapy - their dosage is calculated only on an individual basis.

Treatment of hypothyroidism is carried out all life, hormones are administered in certain doses, because the thyroid gland is not able to produce them in the right amounts independently.

Children with hypothyroidism must comply with the diet - there are some restrictions on the use of food, a nutritionist will give recommendations on the formulation of the regime and diet.For example, from food, you need to exclude salted and marinated foods, fatty meat.But to enter the menu necessarily need fruits, vegetables, nuts, sour-milk products and whole milk, lean meat, seafood.

If conventional therapy with hypothyroidism does not give the desired effect, then specialists can prescribe radioactive iodine preparations at acceptable dosages.Even if such aggressive treatment of the thyroid disease in question does not improve, then doctors perform surgical treatment and completely( or partially) remove the organ.

Thyroid disease in childhood is very important in a timely manner to diagnose.This will avoid violations in mental and physical development, the child will be in society not an outcast, but a full participant.

Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category


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