Benign Skin New Skin: Types and Risks of Rebirth
Neoplasms on human skin can have different structures, but they all have the same mechanism of development - uncontrolled reproduction of cells that have not reached maturity, and, as a result, do not perform their functions fully.Table of contents: Distinctive features of benign neoplasms Benign skin lesions: classification Typical benign lesions Symptoms of benign neoplasm
Distinctive features of benign neoplasms
Neoplasms on the skin are also called neoplasias or tumors.Benign neoplasias have distinctive criteria by which the physician differentiates them from malignant. These criteria include:
- slow growth;
- cellular elements do not spread beyond the tumor;
- neoplasm does not germinate into adjacent tissues;
- tumor increases evenly;
- , as the benign tumor grows, pushes out adjacent tissues and presses on them, eventually forming a capsule from them;
- Benign neoplasias are atypical structures, but they do not tend to metastasize.
Important : tumor data are not dangerous, but it is worth pointing out that with constant exposure to certain external factors they can degenerate into cancerous( not all and not always, but there is a risk, especially for nevi).
- birthmark( it's also a nevus);
- of neurofibroma.
The indication for removal is usually their unsuccessful localization( face, head, places of constant contact with clothing), large sizes, violations that they cause in the work of other organs.Such tumors are excellent for treatment, both surgical and apparatus, only in some cases they can recur.
Benign skin lesions: classification
Benign neoplasia is divided into:
- Acquired tumors.
- Congenital tumors.
Acquired - neoplasms that occur on the skin as a result of such pathologies:
- papillomavirus( genital warts and papillomas);
- reduced immunity( warts on soles and palms, spines);
- metabolic disorders( fibroids are hard and soft, such as nevuses, xanthomas, keratomas).
Congenital - neoplasias, which include:
- birthmarks( nevi more than 2 cm² in area);
Typical locations of benign lesions
Very often, such neoplasias are located in the neck, groin, face, scalp, chest, in the armpit.There are cases when moles are located in atypical places - in the nose, auricular, on the eyelid.In this case, the desire to get rid of them is more aesthetic, because it causes discomfort or a noticeable cosmetic defect.
Symptoms of benign neoplasm
Benign type neoplasms have cells that partially retain their original functions, so they do not penetrate into neighboring tissues.There are many varieties of them.In this article, benign neoplasms that occur most often will be considered.
Types and Symptoms of Hemangioma
Hemangioma is a tumor that is based on a vascular formation.It can be of several types, depending on which vessels are involved in the process: There are several types of this benign neoplasm:
- Cavernous hemangioma.It is located deep in the skin, looks like a subcutaneous restricted node, which is covered by the skin more often bluish color.Usually it is diagnosed in children immediately after birth and is located in typical places - the neck and head.
- Simple capillary hemangioma.It is found on the surface of the skin, it is quite large in size, can have a color from red to dark blue, it is characterized by growth along the periphery.
- Combined hemangioma.It is a combination of simple and cavernous forms of this vascular tumor.
- Mixed hemangioma.With her, the vessels and adjacent tissues are involved in the process, usually the connective tissues.
If the hemangioma is located on the face or eyelid, radiation therapy is used to remove it, in other cases, cryotherapy, sclerotherapy, hormone therapy is indicated.The operative method is used when the hemangioma is very deep.
This is a neoplasia that is formed from connective tissues.Very often it is diagnosed at a young age, mostly in the female.It is characterized by small dimensions - a maximum of 3 cm in diameter.The fibroid is a spherical nodule that is deeply embedded in the skin, slightly elevated above its surface.It can be of different colors: from gray to black.Its surface is usually smooth, sometimes there are warty formations on it, it grows slowly. Important : despite the fact that fibroma is a benign tumor, under favorable conditions there is a risk of its degeneration into oncological form fibrosarcoma. To remove it, use the operative, laser, radiosurgical method or electrocoagulation.
Moles and nevi
They are both congenital and acquired.These neoplasms are a collection of cells that have an excessive amount of melanin pigment.They are characterized by a variety of shapes, texture, color, etc.Remove them both due to possible rebirth, and because of the location in uncomfortable places.
This is a growth that is formed from the fat layer, so its second name is "zhirovik".It is located in the thickness of the connective tissue under the skin.Often the tumor penetrates deeply into the underlying tissues, down to the bones, sprouting between the muscles and the vessels.Typical places of its location - a zone with a thin fat layer: shoulders, hips, up the back, head.Lipoma is soft and mobile, with palpation painless.It is characterized by slow growth.It is not harmful to health, but in very rare cases it can be transformed into a liposarcoma.Mandatory removal is indicated in the presence of intensive growth of the tumor and squeezing it with surrounding tissues, organs.Note: doctors recommend removing the lipoma if it grows, and making it ideally is better until it is small.This will avoid a large postoperative scar. For small sized lipomas, puncture-aspirating, radio-wave, laser treatments are used that ensure the removal of benign neoplasm and excellent cosmetic result.
Symptoms of lymphangioma
This tumor is formed from lymphatic vessels.Most often it has an innate character, since it is formed in the prenatal period, and it is found in children under 3 years old.In appearance, lamphangioma is a cavity with thin walls, the dimensions of which vary from 1 to 5 mm.This neoplasia grows slowly, but there are cases of its spasmodic growth, when the tumor rapidly increases in size and then its operative removal is shown.Surgical treatment of benign tumors is also used in the case of lymphangiomas, which are located near the larynx, trachea, and other vital organs.
Papillomas and warts
They may be in the form of a flat papilla or nodule, but in practice, growths of different sizes, shapes and shades( from corpulent to brown) occur.The main cause of these tumors is the papilloma virus, which has many different strains.It is activated in the human body against the background of stress, vegetative disorders, reduced immunity.
There are certain types of warts that can be transformed into oncological forms, but most of them are still safe.Antiviral and immunomodulating drugs are used for treatment, and any method from the application of acids to the surgical method is suitable for removal.
Symptoms of atheroma
This epithelial cyst is a benign neoplasm of the sebaceous gland that occurs as a result of its blockage.Usual places of its localization: the skin of the groin, neck, head, back, that is, the atheroma is located in areas where there is a high concentration of sebaceous glands.Externally, atheroma is distinguished by clear contours, it is rather dense, elastic at palpation, the patient does not suffer from discomfort.If an infection is attached, then a tumor can be suppurated, and it acquires a reddish hue, there is swelling, pain, subfebrile condition.Atheroma in a state of inflammation can erupt on its own, which is manifested by the release of purulent-greasy contents from it. Important : despite the fact that atheroma is benign, it can degenerate into a liposarcoma - a malignant tumor.That's why it should be deleted and only through the operational method.
This is a neoplasia that grows from cells that create nerve envelopes.It is localized in the subcutaneous tissue or skin.Neurofibroma is a tubercle of a dense consistency up to 3 cm in diameter.Outwardly it is covered with epidermis, which is strongly pigmented or depigmented.This tumor can have a multiple character.This condition is called neurofibromatosis, it is the result of a genetic malfunction and is inherited.
Single neurofibroma rarely degenerates into a cancerous tumor, but it brings its owner many problems, because it can cause various functional disorders, permanent pain.This benign neoplasm is important to treat medication( retinoids), promptly or with the use of radiotherapy.
Skin lesions: when there is danger?
The main danger of any benign neoplasm is its malignancy, that is, degeneration into cancer or melanoma.This is not typical for all neoplasias, and it is possible to determine which birthmark is potentially dangerous on the body, and which one is not, can be exclusively specialist.To prevent degeneration, it is necessary to remove the neoplasm, especially the one that has a real threat, according to the doctor.It has been clinically proven that the most dangerous with regard to possible degeneration are nevi - birthmarks and moles that have a convex shape and are present on the body since birth.In this case, timely accurate diagnosis is important.First of all, dermatologists advise to remove keratomas.Also, because of the often discomfort, warts, warts, papillomas, xanthomas are removed.
When is it necessary to remove a benign neoplasm?
There are cases when neoplasia should be removed regardless of its appearance. This rule is valid if:
- in a small area of the skin there is an accumulation of about 20 moles, which is an increased risk of developing melanoma;
- it is located on such places as the neck, face, hands, because they are often exposed to ultraviolet radiation, which at times increases the risk of degeneration;
- someone in the family had skin cancer, since the hereditary factor plays a very large role in this case;
- , neoplasia is often traumatized.
When should I visit a dermatologist?
It is important not to postpone the visit to the doctor if the lesion on the skin:
- began to drop the hairs from its surface;
- changed the color;
- began to bleed;
- changed the consistency;
- changed the form;
- its outline has become blurry;
- has been joined by inflammation, itching;
- on its surface formed cracks.
You will receive comprehensive information on the types of skin lesions, existing risks of degeneration and methods of removing tumors by viewing this video review:
Viktorova Yuliya, obstetrician-gynecologist