Pigmented spots on the face: causes and treatment
Any woman, regardless of age, wants her skin to be always healthy and beautiful.One of the frequent problems that plague many ladies is the pigmentation of the face.They can appear in adolescence, and in women older than 50 years.Most of the fair sex representatives are sure that the spots are associated with negative processes that occur directly in the skin.To combat them use a variety of cosmetic products and resort to folk remedies, sometimes, very questionable.
Local exposure to the skin leads to the fact that the pigmented spots do not disappear, but only a little pale.Inadequate measures may well lead to the progression of the process.In order to successfully deal with this cosmetic defect, you need to know the reasons for its appearance.Table of contents: Causes of development of age spots How to get rid of pigment spots on the face?
Causes of development of pigment spots
As a rule, pathological pigmentation develops in women older than 35-40 years, but there are exceptions.Spots are the result of local accumulations of melanin, which exists in the body of any person.This pigment is present in the outer layer of the skin - the epidermis.When it accumulates in the restricted areas of the outer layer, then birthmarks or freckles appear.The color of such formations can vary from light yellow to saturated brown.As a rule, they do not cause problems for women.
Another matter - deposits of melanin in the deeper layers of the epidermis.These spots are characterized by a dark brown color.They can interfere with applying make-up on your face, and if several rise above the skin level - then even put on clothes.
Cosmetic specialists distinguish such types of pigmented spots:
- Lentigo( typical for older women);
One of the leading causes of hyperpigmentation is a genetic predisposition.Spots can sometimes be present even in newborns.Elimination of hereditarily caused cosmetic defects requires taking serious measures, one of which is laser resurfacing.
Often spots appear due to hormonal imbalance.Pigmentation can develop with diseases of the endocrine system, as well as hormonal changes in the body associated with pregnancy or menstruation.In some cases, it can develop in women in the first year after the birth of a child.Such spots usually have an irregular shape;They are called chloasma.Experts do not advise taking any measures to eliminate this cosmetic defect.Pigmentation areas often develop with dysfunction of the thyroid gland, as well as in the development of neoplasms in the pituitary gland.To cope with the spots of endocrine genesis, it is necessary to treat the underlying disease.As the hormonal background returns to normal, the spots will disappear.
Pigmentation may occur with skin injuries.
The main causes of skin damage causing hyperpigmentation of its individual areas:
- acne( acne);
- burns( chemical or thermal);
- complications in cosmetic procedures( peeling, etc.).
To eliminate traces of traumatic genesis, as a rule, local effects are not enough.The majority of patients require complex therapy.
Often spots appear under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.The immediate cause, in particular, can be an excessively long stay in the sun.It is known that ultraviolet stimulates the formation of melanin, and in normal human tan appears necessary to protect from burns.But the pigment in a number of cases is more intensively accumulated in separate regions.It usually affects the skin of the face, because it is the most tender and is never protected by clothing.Pigmented spots often appear from the spring sun, since after the autumn-winter period the skin is as much as possible depigmented.
Even the most modern sunscreen is not always effective, so to avoid skin problems it is recommended to sunbathe in the evening or in the morning.
Note: spots often appear after too frequent trips to the solarium.In pursuit of beauty you can achieve quite the opposite effect.
Pigmentation of skin areas often indicates diseases of the digestive tract( in particular, the intestine), kidneys, liver and gallbladder.When diseases of the intestine usually appear spots of reddish hue.Brown pigmentation indicates problems with the liver or gallbladder.Disorders of the functional activity of the kidneys lead to the development of spots of yellow or yellowish-brown color.Bleaching and other local procedures are ineffective.The spots disappear on their own after the successful treatment of the underlying disease.In many cases there is enough strict adherence to the prescribed diet.
Pigmented spots are often caused by mental illnesses, nervous disorders and even frequent psychoemotional stresses.Problems from the nervous system lead to hormonal imbalance and metabolic disorders, as a result of which pathological accumulations of melanin are formed.To eliminate such defects, the patient's mental state needs to be normalized.
Spots on the skin may appear if the body of a woman lacks some micro- and macronutrients or vitamins.In particular, pigmentation is often a consequence of vitamin C deficiency( ascorbic acid) and insufficient alimentary intake of copper.Such accumulations of melanin spontaneously disappear as the deficiency of these biologically active substances is replenished.
Some pharmacological agents with prolonged course use can also provoke the appearance of areas of hyperpigmentation.Especially often the spots appear against the background of prolonged antibiotic therapy.In such cases it is necessary to consult a doctor who will decide whether to replace a certain drug with an analogue or discontinue the course of treatment.
Important: The cause of staining in some cases is an allergic reaction.In such a situation, a specialist consultation is required, which will help to identify the factor leading to the appearance of a hypersensitivity reaction.
Skin can react to substandard cosmetics.At present, a lot of counterfeit means for skin care and make-up have appeared on sale.They may contain toxic ingredients.If you notice that after applying a certain type of cosmetics, pigmented spots appear, you need to stop using it and urgently need to see a dermatologist.
Note: the appearance of hyperpigmentation is often due to excessively often performed skin cleansing and bleaching procedures.
The appearance of darkened areas on the skin of the hands, neck and face is often the result of natural aging processes.Usually such spots appear after 45 years.The reason is a hormonal adjustment during the menopause and an uneven distribution of pigment in the aging skin.Pigmentation can also be associated with chronic diseases that develop and worsen with age.
How to get rid of the spots on the face?
As a rule, pigmented spots are not dangerous in themselves, but in most cases they indicate certain pathologies of organs and systems.The appearance of darkened areas on the skin is the reason for undergoing a comprehensive medical examination that will reveal the true cause of the pathology.You need to treat not the effect, but the reason.
Women who have hyperpigmentation areas of the facial skin should first of all consult with the doctors of the following specializations:
Depending on the cause of the appearance of pathology, the tactics of treatment are also determined.In any case, treatment of the underlying disease is required;Otherwise, neither the national means for whitening, nor even the most innovative cosmetic procedures will help.
A variety of treatments can be used to eliminate pigmentation, but the effectiveness of many of them is questionable.In addition, some "bleach" can harm the skin.
One of the most famous and common "folk remedies" is a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide.The application of this remedy often causes a chemical burn of the outer layer of the epidermis, and melanin, accumulated in the depth of the skin, does not disappear anywhere.
A cream containing mercury compounds can only be used for a very short time.Mercury is very aggressive with respect to the tissues of the body substance.Long-term application of funds, which include this ingredient, leads to irritation on the skin.
Important: to a woman who carries a baby, and also to nursing mothers such creams are categorically contraindicated!
A paste containing zinc is one of the safest means.It effectively whitens the skin, and also helps to cope with acne and if not eliminate, then reduce wrinkles.
Cosmetic procedures for eliminating hyperpigmentation
Cosmetic procedures should be performed only by a qualified technician.A specific technique is chosen strictly individually.The cosmetologist takes into account the severity of the defect, the area of its location, as well as the presence of contraindications to this procedure in the patient.
Chemical peeling involves the application of organic acids - fruity, glycolic, etc. These biologically active compounds provide the slimming of the cells of the outer layer of the epidermis.Thus, the renewal of the skin is provided, which eventually contributes to the disappearance or decrease in the severity of pathological pigmentation.
Peeling can also be performed with an ultrasound unit.
Laser peeling helps to eliminate the cells of the outer skin layer as carefully as possible.The disadvantage of this technique is its relative traumatism.After the procedure, patients are shown applying to the skin the means that accelerate the regeneration process.Laser peeling sessions are preferable to be performed in winter, when exposure to the sun's ultraviolet skin is minimal.
Phototherapy can selectively affect the areas of hyperpigmentation.Light waves of high intensity contribute to the destruction of cells with the pathologically high presence of melanin.
Any cosmetic whitening agent should only be used under the supervision of an experienced technician.With their mismanagement, the development of an effect completely opposite to the desired one is possible, that is, the pigment spots on the face become even more noticeable.
Please note: a number of drugs are categorically contraindicated in pregnancy, breastfeeding, as well as acute and chronic liver or kidney pathologies.
The most effective bleaching agents are:
- Retin-A( cream);
- VC-IP( solution based on ascorbic acid);
- Achromin MAX;
- Complex Neoton( night serum + preparation Neotone Radiance SPF 50+).
Folk recipes for the removal of facial pigment spots
There are a number of safe and time-tested folk techniques for getting rid of hyperpigmentation.A good effect helps to achieve a cosmetic mask from grated fresh cucumber.
On the problem skin, you can apply a mixture of yeast and lemon juice for 10-15 minutes.It is also recommended twice a day to wipe the face with parsley infusion, mixed with fresh whole milk.
An effective remedy for the removal of pigment spots on the face is a mask of mashed boiled potatoes mixed with egg yolk.
Chumachenko Olga, medical reviewer