Gastric polyp: symptoms and treatment
Polyp of the stomach - benign proliferation of glandular tissue.It can manifest as a single growth( 1-3 polyps), but sometimes there are many( 10-15 or more).In this case, the patient is diagnosed with a diffuse( multiple) polyposis.In the causes of the disease, heredity is seen.That is, if in the family someone from the older generation suffers from this disease, then the probability of its development in children is high.Also preceded by the development of the polyp are chronic inflammatory processes that occur in the gastric mucosa.Table of Contents: Causes of appearance and variety of stomach polyps What are the signs that a polyp can be suspected in humans Diagnostic methods Methods for treating stomach polyps
Reasons for the appearance and variety of stomach polyps
Gastric polyps diagnosed in 30% of people over the age of 50 years. Among the causes and factors of the development of the disease should be identified:
- Age after 40 years;
- hereditary predisposition;
- chronic gastritis against a background of helicobacterial infection;
- wrong power supply.
In its structure, polyps can occur:
- Of glandular tissue - adenomatous.
- From the cells of the epithelium - hyperplastic.
Adenomatous polyps are divided into:
- tubular, developing from tubular cells of the gastric mucosa;
- papillary, developing from papillary layer;
- papillotubular, mixed.
Note: adenomatous polyps can pass into stomach cancer.This occurs in 10-15% of cases, so it is very important after the detection of the polyp to begin its treatment or to organize the monitoring of the state of education, for which the analysis of tissue for the presence of cancer cells is periodically taken.
In 95% of cases, hyperplastic polyps occur.Unlike adenomatous, they never develop into cancer.More often polyps arise in middle-aged men.Rarely in young people and children.
The following are located at the location:
- pyloric( pyloric) polyp, located at the site of the transference of the stomach into the 12-colon;
- polyp of the body of the stomach.
Externally polyps can resemble cauliflower, berries and mushrooms.Sometimes they are located on the stalk, and sometimes on a wide base.
What are the signs suggesting the presence of the polyp in humans
In the initial stages, the polypous growth does not manifest itself. Over time, the following symptoms appear:
- discomfort and epigastric pain;
- excessive salivation;
- absence and change in appetite;
- belching( empty and with heartburn);
- nausea and vomiting;
- pain during eating, giving back to the area and under the shoulder blades;
- alternating diarrhea and constipation;
- bloating( flatulence);
- unpleasant taste and smell from the mouth;
- general weakness and weight loss.
It should be noted that similar complaints and signs are observed in gastritis, gastric ulcer.Therefore, polyps in the early stages of the examination are often a random finding.
As the polyps grow, they cause more serious complaints and can manifest:
- with dark, tar-like stool, which indicates the presence of bleeding in the stomach;
- vomiting with blood;
- with sharp, cramping pains in the upper region of the abdomen( epigastrium), often spilled throughout the stomach, giving( irradiating) in the back.This sign indicates that, most likely, develops a gastric obstruction caused by large polyp size.
Later stages of polyp development are complicated:
- appearance of ulcers;
- internal bleeding;
- difficulty in passing food;
- infringement of a polyp, located on a long leg by a doorkeeper( a round muscle between the stomach and 12 duodenum).
- malignant degeneration of adenomatous polyp( malignancy).
Earlier it was noted that the complaints that occur with the polyp are very similar to the symptoms of gastritis, gastric ulcer.The polyp often develops against the background of the existing inflammation of the gastric mucosa - gastritis.Therefore, it is very difficult to recognize the presence of complaints on complaints.
Diagnostic methods come to the aid of the physician:
- fibrogastroduodenoscopy( FGDS).With the help of a gastroscopy, you can not only detect a polyp, but also take a biopsy - polyp tissue for analysis for the presence of malignant cells;
- X-ray of the stomach using contrast agents.This variant of the survey will help to establish the general outline of the polyp in the stomach;
- examination of feces for latent blood.It is performed in order to determine the possible onset of bleeding, provoked by the polyp;
- general clinical blood test.With repeated, even minor bleeding in the blood, you can find signs of anemia( anemia), which will be expressed by a decrease in the number of red blood cells and hemoglobin;
- serological assays.The purpose of these studies is to find antibodies to Helicobacter pylori infection.
After the diagnosis, it remains to choose a method for treating the polyp in the stomach.
Methods for treatment of stomach polyps
After finding the polyp and conducting all necessary examinations, the doctor in most cases will suggest its surgical removal.Drug treatment does not lead to the healing of this disease, but it can reduce the manifestations of concomitant gastritis, which is required to prepare the patient for surgical treatment.Therefore, the answer to the question "Is it necessary to remove the polyp of the stomach?" Is unambiguous - yes.
If the patient for some reason refuses surgery, the doctor decides to wait and see tactics with dynamic supervision, a recommendation to undergo a screening every six months, and in case of danger - with resection of the polyp.Treatment in this case is carried out with the help of medications.
Pharmacological treatment of polyps
Reduced to the elimination of symptoms of the disease.In the case of an existing gastritis( and it is observed in almost all patients with polyps), eliminate the existing complaints.Drugs try to improve the motility of the stomach and intestines.This is achieved by the use of ranitidine, motilium and other drugs of this group.Incidentally, violations of the secretory activity of the stomach are eliminated.
Endoscopic removal of polyps
More recently, more and more gentle methods of removing the polyp of the stomach have been used.In the initial stage of development, success is achieved by endoscopic intervention.With gastroscopy, you can remove both single and multiple polyps.
A special loop is inserted through the canal of the gastroscope into the stomach cavity, which squeezes the foot of the polyp in the base itself, followed by diathermocoagulation( electric cautery) and the polyp dies off and extracted.The surgical procedure is called electroexcision.
After the intervention, the patients undergo a control gastroscopy 3 months after the operation.If necessary, appoint an additional electrocoagulation - moxibustion of residual tissues.Full healing occurs after 2 months.Patients who underwent electroexcision and electrocoagulation, regular examinations are recommended to detect possible re-formation of the polyp.
Important: frequent polyps biopsies can lead to faster growth and malignancy.Therefore, the doctor must carefully weigh the need for repeated studies.
In the presence of large polyps that complicate bleeding and obstruction, repeated relapses( repeated polyps), and also in case of malignant course, a stomach resection is required, that is, removal of the part of the stomach on which polyps appear.
Folk remedies for treatment of stomach polyp
Traditional medicine for many centuries has collected a large number of ways to treat stomach ailments. Important : none of the recipes from the category "Traditional medicine" can not be used without doctor's permission and must necessarily be combined with drug treatment methods for stomach polyps and related diseases.
For polyps, the following medicines are considered to be the best:
- A mixture of honey and butter.For 1 liter of each ingredient, cook in a saucepan over low heat for 2 hours.Do not forget to stir until a uniform mass is obtained.Then allow the mixture to cool and cool in the refrigerator.Take 1 tablespoon in the morning for half an hour before meals.Over time, the polyp can disappear.
- A mixture of honey, olive oil and lemon juice.Honey and olive oil take 0.5 liters, squeezed juice of 2 lemons.Thoroughly mix.The resulting composition should be stored in the refrigerator.Take 1 tablespoon three times daily before meals.The course of treatment is a month.Repeat every six months.Mixture of egg yolks and pumpkin seeds.
- .Boil 7 eggs, take the yolks.Add flour made from 6 tablespoons of pumpkin seeds, and yolks in 0.5 liters of sunflower oil.To warm.Put in a water bath and let stand for about 20 minutes.Allow to cool and then store in the refrigerator.Drug composition take 1 teaspoon in the morning for 5 days.Then you need a break, also 5 days.Continue taking the medication until the end of the medication.
Please note: should be consulted with the doctor in charge when treating gastric polyps with folk remedies.In some situations, traditional medicine can be powerless, and you just miss the time and provoke additional complications of the disease.
Preventive measures aimed at preventing the appearance and recurrence of polyps.
Alas, but there is no special preventive measure for stomach polyps.To prevent the occurrence of these formations, it is necessary to treat the existing chronic gastritis.
Do not forget to exercise caution when taking medications that tend to disrupt the gastric mucosa.First of all, we are talking about non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs( Voltaren, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac sodium, etc.)
It is necessary to limit the intake of alcohol and coffee.It is advisable to exclude smoking.
Diet for stomach polystyrene
Properly selected and observed diet is an effective way of preventing the appearance and development of polyps.
For its compliance please abstain from:
- pickles and marinades;
- canned products;
- smoked, fried and spicy dishes;
- fatty meat broth;
- hard drinks with caffeine.
For consumption in food are recommended:
- sour-milk products, curd, cream;
- vegetable soups;
- boiled lean meat and fish;
- cereal cereals;
- hot boiled, mashed and baked vegetables;
- sweet fruit;
- eggs boiled soft-boiled;
- herbal decoctions, compotes of non-acid fruits, mineral water;
- sweet desserts( cookies, biscuits, marmalade).
For more information about polyps and possible complications, please refer to this review:
Stepanenko Vladimir Alexandrovich, Surgeon