Macular degeneration of the eye
Mar 05, 2018
One of the main causes of visual impairment in adulthood is age-related macular degeneration.This disease proceeds in a chronic form, actively progressing, but for quite a long time it goes unnoticed for the patient - a healthy eye will experience increased strain, so a sharp deterioration of vision will be imperceptible.
Age-type macular degeneration is a pathological process leading to degenerative changes in the central macular area of the retina.It is in this area that the concentration of the maximum number of photosensitive cells is marked and, in norm, they provide the person with good vision.If there is a progression of macular degeneration of the retina, the light-sensitive cell functions are reduced, the retinal tissue anoxia begin testing, and the result of these pathological processes is the formation and subsequent growth of the defective blood vessel.It is noteworthy that the wall of these newly formed vessels is very fragile and through it penetrates the tissue of the retina - this provokes swelling of the macular zone.
Causes of macular degeneration of the retina
Doctors allocate the sole cause of age-related macular degeneration - the age of a person 60 years of ageAnd older, when degenerative age processes begin in the entire body of the .It is necessary to take into account the hereditary factor - it is proved that if in the family there is someone in the considered disease, then it is possible with a probability of 87% to predict the diagnosis of pathology in other members of the genus.
Besides the causes retinal macular degeneration of the eye, it is necessary to know and precipitating factors of this pathology:
- eating disorder - for example, too much fat and carbohydrates consumed;
- frequent and prolonged exposure to direct sunlight;
- chronic pathologies in the body - for example, persistent high blood pressure, atherosclerosis.
Clinical manifestations of macular degeneration of the retina
eyes at the initial stage of progression of the disease in question are no symptoms or changes in the bodies of a man not noted.But , as the retina macular degeneration develops, eyesight deterioration, the appearance of "flies" in front of the eyes, the vagueness of the seen( "everything is as in a fog"), the curvature of the "picture".
In ophthalmology consider two types of degenerative processes in the macular area of the eye - dry and wet:
- Dry macular degeneration.It can go on for years, but it does not show itself at all, the fat cells accumulate on the retina of the eye - first in a single quantity, and then they merge into characteristic spots.According to statistics, about 15% of all patients with macular degeneration of the eye with its dry appearance partially lose sight.
- Wet macular degeneration.This type of the considered disease is rare, but it very quickly progresses and leads to a deterioration, and sometimes loss, of vision in 90% of patients.When examining the organs of vision, a specialist will detect edema and hemorrhages on the retina, the presence of newly formed vessels.
Note: symptoms of macular degeneration of the retina eyes can not be considered specific, but when they occur should immediately seek the help of an ophthalmologist.Only a specialist will be able to diagnose pathology and prevent rapid deterioration of vision.
Only a doctor can diagnose the patient on the basis of the patient's complaints - a full examination is necessary. Everything starts with the standard reception from an ophthalmologist:
- definition of visual acuity - the patient must first read the letters on the table himself, then with corrective lenses;
- measurement of the visual field boundaries;
- determination of intraocular pressure.
After this, the patient will be examined using a slit lamp, then the doctor will use an ophthalmoscope - this tool helps to "see" a reliable picture of pathological changes in the visual organs.If the macular degeneration of the eye after these examinations is confirmed, then for the final diagnosis the patient will need to undergo fluorescein angiography and coherent optical tomography.
Basic principles of treatment of macular degeneration of the retina
Due to the fact that the disease under consideration is asymptomatic for a long time, patients turn to qualified medical care too late, when it is not a matter of restoring vision, but of preserving what remains. It is believed that drug therapy is suitable for carrying out only if the vision is still high in the patient, but on the retina there are already degenerative changes of .And in this case, the ophthalmologist will prescribe vasoconstrictive, antioxidant, retinoprotective drugs. Often for the treatment of macular degeneration of the eye, vitamins are used simultaneously with stimulation of the retina by laser.
Similar medication therapy is conducted in courses, at least 2 times a year.
If the patient comes to the doctor at a time when the retina is already present( progressive moist macular degeneration of the eye retina), then it is advisable to use laserocoagulation for the treatment, due to which it is possible to achieve blockage of vessels.The result of such a laser treatment will be a decrease in the frequency of hemorrhages and a decrease in edema.
Recently, Lucentis has been used for the treatment of the disease in question, it is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, which was developed specifically for use in the ophthalmic practice of .This drug is injected into the vitreal cavity of the eye - this procedure is carried out under sterile conditions( standard operating theaters), but the patient is not in the inpatient department of the medical institution.After 30-40 days after the introduction, you should go to the ophthalmologist for an examination and if the doctor sees a need for a re-introduction of Lucentis, it will be done - as a rule, a three-time administration of the drug is prescribed, but there are cases when only one manipulation is sufficient for positive dynamics.
Lutsentis perfectly copes with the puffiness of the retina, increases visual acuity and stops the growth / spread of non-standard blood vessels.Patients who underwent similar treatment would have to visit the ophthalmologist once a month to check the retina and eye day.
Immediately specify - modern ophthalmology can not offer patients with macular degeneration of the eye retina a treatment that 100% returns vision.Therefore, it is better to simply avoid the development of degenerative processes in the macular area of the eye, for which a list of preventive measures was developed:
- to quit smoking;
- to adjust the diet - the menu should be balanced, it should be dominated by vegetables / fruits and dairy products;
- avoid excessive physical exertion and long-term inclination in the tilted state - this arrangement of the head can lead to bleeding in the eyes;
- constantly monitor blood pressure;
- periodically give blood to the level of cholesterol.
Well, perhaps most importantly - at least once every six months is worth attending a doctor-oculist for early detection of pathological processes.After a timely diagnosis and timely treatment started can stabilize the state of the organs of vision and for many years to preserve their visual functions.
Macular degeneration of the retina is a degenerative change, which in most cases is irreversible.Only a periodic visit to the ophthalmologist and timely diagnosis of this disease allows the patient to maintain vision.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category