Depression - types, symptoms, treatment
Depression is a kind of mental disorder.This concept is often used by people to describe their prolonged bad mood, apathy.Meanwhile, depression is a disease that can and should be treated, because the consequences of a long-lasting condition can be dangerous not only for human health, but also for his life.
Most often, a depression is accepted for depression, which provokes stress.And scientists define depression as acquired helplessness over difficulties, everyday problems and turmoil in the family.Table of Contents: Causes of Depression Types of Depression Symptoms of Depression Treatment of Depression Myths about Depression
Causes of Depression
As a rule, several causes can affect the appearance of depression: from a banal quarrel with a boss to the death of a loved one.In women, the condition in question is diagnosed much more often than in men - doctors and scientists can not accurately explain this, but they attribute this trend to the hormonal level. For example, the causes of depression in women can become :
- pregnancy - it will be about prenatal depression;
- birth of a child - postpartum depression is diagnosed;
- disorders in the functionality of the thyroid gland;
- premenstrual syndrome.
Depression can develop and against the background of strong negative emotions - for example, after the death of a loved one.It is not surprising that women are more likely to "go into themselves," experiencing their own sadness and longing for themselves - men are more likely to switch to active activities for distraction from gloomy thoughts.
There is also depression on the background of progressive somatic diseases - for example, against the backdrop of thyroid gland pathologies or from severe pain and awareness of the inevitable disability in arthritis, rheumatism, oncology.
Depression can be caused by some mental disorders - for example, this condition is often diagnosed in patients with schizophrenia, alcohol and drug addiction.
Types of depression
There are two main types of depression :
- exogenous - in which case the disorder will be triggered by some external stimulus( for example, loss of work or death of a relative);
- is endogenous - depression is caused by internal problems, often inexplicable.
Many inhabitants are sure that exogenous depression does not pose a danger to a person - this is a transitory state, you just have to go through a difficult period.But the endogenous type of depression is considered a complex disease, leading to serious mental illness.In fact, on the contrary, doctors say that an external stimulus can become a provoker of a serious disorder, but endogenous depression will most likely be classified as a depressive episode.
The considered condition appears in a person not suddenly and not at once - there are three stages of its development. :
- Dysthymia - a person is in a long time in a bad mood and is in a bad mood.To make such a diagnosis, it will take at least 2 years - this is the period that the described state should last.
- A depressive episode is already quite a difficult condition, which can last a long time, up to several months.It is during a depressive episode that patients most often attempt suicide.
- Depressive disorder - with it depressive episodes appear with a certain periodicity.For example, you can bring all the known seasonal depression( autumn, winter).
Symptoms of depression
If the reasons for the appearance of the condition under consideration are unknown to doctors, the symptoms of depression are well known to every specialist. These include :Sadness, irritability, seclusion.
- .These symptoms appear at the very beginning of the disease, may be accompanied by insomnia.
- Feeling of pressure in the chest, a feeling of suffocation, a decrease in potency.In this sad mood is also present, but as if pushed to the background - patients clearly indicate pain and problems in the sexual system.
- Slows speech, voice becomes quiet, communication with others is reduced to a minimum.
- The concentration of attention decreases, there is a feeling of guilt and helplessness.
- Lack of appetite.Some people in the periods of depression completely refuse to eat, which often leads to exhaustion.Women against the background of such fasting can break the menstrual cycle, until the complete cessation of menstruation.
- Loses the ability to rejoice, to enjoy any things, actions.
Of course, the listed symptoms are very conditional - they can be present all at once, and can be single. There are some features of the signs of depression :
- if the condition in question is mild, the person will not lose appetite, but on the contrary have a great need for food;
- people may be overestimated by a critical assessment of their abilities - they constantly scold themselves;
- depression can be accompanied by thoughts about the presence of a dangerous disease, oncology or AIDS - people in this state and with such a sign on their own it is impossible to convince the contrary;
- in 15% of cases of severe depression, patients have delusions or hallucinations, they may dream of their deceased relatives, hear voices that accuse a person of committing sin and the need to atone for it with "blood."
Important: , the most serious symptom of depression is the thought of death, and in 15% of cases of depression, patients have clear and persistent suicidal thoughts.Often, patients voice the planning of their killing - this should be an unconditional reason for hospitalization.
Treatment of depression
Depression is a disease, so it must be treated in tandem with specialists.And, to delay the appeal for help to doctors is not necessary - depression can drag on for months and years, which certainly leads to dangerous conditions.
The therapy of the examined condition is carried out in two directions :
- Medication administration.In no case can you make a decision about using any sedatives in an independent mode - it's the prerogative of a doctor.Depression can be treated by various means - the choice of the attending physician will depend on several factors:
- at what stage of development is the disease at the time of the examination;
- are there any medical contraindications for taking certain medicines;
- which mental and general disorders have been previously diagnosed;
- how often there is a depressive state or it does not stop for a long time.
- Psychotherapy.Without it, the treatment of depression with even the most effective medicines will be inadequate.Before this direction of therapy, the goal is to teach a person to manage his own emotions.And this is impossible without the active participation of the patient himself. It is necessary to conduct several preparatory / introductory sessions so that the patient can trust the doctor and tell about his experiences, problems, feelings and emotions without concealment.
In addition to contacting the doctors, it will also be necessary to carry out a permanent work on the patient himself - without this, it will not be possible to get out of the depression.
Doctors recommend :
- During the period of depression, do not make any important decisions - for example, regarding the sale of real estate, dismissal from work, divorce from a loved one.The fact is that in depression, patients are often unable to adequately assess the decisions made, then, only restoring their psycho-emotional background, they understand their mistake and again "fall through" into a depressive abyss - a vicious circle turns out.
- Try to avoid stress.Even a small load on the psychological state of a person susceptible to depression can lead to the development of a serious condition.
- Take care of your body.In depression, not only mental, but also physical strength decays - the body is literally exhausted.Therefore, as soon as a person feels relief, one must organize the load on the body.They should be strictly minimal - enough to restore order in the house, water the flowers or cook dinner.Further loads need to be increased, but in the most sparing mode.
- Be sure to eat delicious food and products.As soon as you have an appetite( when depression is reduced or completely absent), cook your favorite dishes - this will help restore a sense of joy and pleasure.With the development of the condition under consideration, immunity decreases, so doctors recommend introducing fruit on the menu.
- Get rid of negative thoughts.As soon as some unpleasant thoughts appear, you need to distract yourself - read a book, listen to cheerful or relaxing music, get in touch / meet with friends.
- Contact your psychotherapist regularly.You must tell the expert about your new emotions, about changes in mood - only in this case you can get qualified and timely help.
- Communicate with friends and relatives.Even if it is a burden, even if the mood does not have to communicate vigorously - do not remain alone with your problem!Support for loved ones, even simple conversations on abstract topics help to quickly return to society, get out of a depressed state.
We recommend to look!In this video review of the causes of depression, symptoms and methods of treatment of the problem state, the therapist tells:
Myths about depression
Since the condition in question refers to mental disorders, it is surrounded by numerous myths.Doctors easily refute them, leading competent arguments.Consider the most popular myths.
- Depression is not a disease, it's pampering and unwillingness to work / make important decisions / cope with problems.
Actually, the condition in question is a disease - there are causes and symptoms of development, depression often leads to severe consequences, in many cases results in a fatal outcome.And this is not the flu or cold, the rules of treatment which everyone knows about!Cope with the depressed state will not help either relatives or friends - without the help of doctors can not do.
- To be depressed is to be crazy, live in a madhouse, and it's a shame.
Disease is not a disgrace, but a circumstance independent of the person himself.This statement applies to depression, so that such a state is not ashamed.People diagnosed with depression are not treated permanently, but even if they get into clinics, these are not psychiatric hospitals, but sanatoriums.To get into a psycho-impeller( this really does not bring pleasure) can only be forcibly after several reported cases of suicide attempts - this happens rarely with the proper treatment of depression.
- Depression is not cured.The disease remains for life, regularly returned.
Doctors conduct their own statistics, from which it can be concluded that the disorder under consideration is fully treated.If the patient under the depressive episode has undergone adequate treatment, then the disease does not return.
- Antidepressants used in the treatment of depression are dangerous to health.
There is a shred of truth in this statement - antidepressants have side effects, expressed in a decrease in sexual desire, increased appetite, headaches, nausea.Most of the patients are afraid of increased appetite - it is believed that with the use of antidepressants you can quickly gain excess weight.But with some forms of depression, there is a significant increase in the need for food.And if someone is concerned about the issue of reducing potency, then during periods of depression, patients are not yet able to be sex giants.And then - after the end of the course of therapy with antidepressants, side effects disappear and health is restored, but depression can last for years.
- Antidepressants provoke drug dependence.
Some of the old types of these medicines did cause affection, but modern drugs are more sophisticated and do not cause addictive effects( unless - psychological).
- Antidepressants prescribed by doctors can stop drinking at any time.
This is a very big mistake!Many patients, taking antidepressants course and feeling better, decide to self-abandon therapy.Most often this occurs at the very peak of treatment - this can lead to a new "coil" of depression in a more severe form.
The benefits and dangers of antidepressants are constantly debated.We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the opinions of the specialists outlined in this video review:
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category