Blood sugar analysis: preparation, interpretation of results
The blood test for sugar( glucose) is the main method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus - a common endocrine disease associated with a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. Progressing, diabetes leads to serious complications from the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, nervous system.Table of contents: To whom and when is it necessary to be surveyed?Tests for the determination of blood sugar Prepare a breakdown of the blood test for sugar If the analysis shows high sugar
To whom and when is it necessary to be examined?
There are three types of diabetes mellitus:
- 1-st, associated with insufficient synthesis of insulin;
- 2-nd - the result of non-perception of insulin by the body;
- 3rd or gestational( diabetes of pregnant women), which develops due to hormonal changes in the body of a woman and a decrease in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin.
Most often( in almost 90% of cases) people suffer from type 2 diabetes.The wide prevalence of this form of the disease is very simple: in its development, the leading role is played by the factors that are present in the lives of so many people, for example, malnutrition, obesity, and hypodynamia.
Diabetes mellitus is not a rare pathology. According to WHO, in the world about 350 million people are sick with it. The disease has already gained momentum in the global epidemic, which is especially dangerous for developing countries.Russia is not an exception, where about 2.6 million people with diabetes have been officially registered, but the number of patients can be large at times, since many patients even do not know the presence of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes is usually manifested after 40 years, therefore it is recommended to donate blood for sugar every 2-3 years from this age. For those who are obese, other endocrine disorders, and also has compromised heredity, blood sugar( glycemia) should be checked much earlier and every year.Such measures will help to identify the disease in time and prevent the development of serious complications.
In addition, the examination for sugar should be mandatory when the following symptoms appear( they may indicate the development of the disease):
- A strong thirst.
- Polyuria( increase in the amount of urine released per day).
- Dryness and severe itching of the skin.
- General weakness.
- Pustular skin diseases.
- Recurrent mucosal candidiasis.
In addition, to timely identify gestational diabetes, which can complicate the course of pregnancy and harm the fetus, blood sugar tests are conducted for all future mothers.
Finally, a regular check of the level of glycemia is indicated for people with diabetes.It is desirable for patients to have a glucometer at home and monitor themselves independently, and also periodically take tests at a polyclinic.
Blood sugar tests
There are several diagnostic tests for determining blood glucose levels:
- Analysis for capillary blood sugar ( from the finger), which is performed using a home portable glucometer or a laboratory glucometer in a polyclinic.This study is considered an express analysis, its result can be recognized immediately.However, the method is not highly accurate, therefore, if there are deviations from the norm, it is necessary to deliver blood from the vein to glucose.
- Determination of sugar in venous blood. This analysis is carried out on special analyzers, and its result is more accurate.
- Glucose Tolerance Test ( Glucose Tolerance Test) is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and pregnancy-related diabetes.The essence is to determine the sugar content in the blood on an empty stomach and after a glucose load.As a load, a solution of water and 75 g of glucose is used( special powders for the preparation of this solution are sold in pharmacies).A second blood sample is taken 2 hours after the intake of glucose.Drinking something else and eating food between the analyzes is impossible, and excessive physical activity is also not recommended in this period of time.
- Analysis for glycated hemoglobin. In the course of this study, hemoglobin bound to glucose is detected in the blood.To doctors this information makes it possible to assess the blood sugar level of the patient for several months preceding the analysis, which is necessary to regulate the dose of antidiabetic medications.
It is necessary to come to the delivery of the analysis slightly hungry, slept and rested.From the last meal to taking the blood for the study should take at least 8 hours, but not more than 12, because from this the result can be falsely understated.In addition, in order for the test to be reliable, before going to the laboratory( 2-3 days), it is necessary to eat as usual and lead a normal lifestyle.A strict diet or, conversely, overeating, alcohol, excessive physical activity, stress - all this can affect the level of glycemia.Also, it is not recommended to perform the analysis against the background of acute diseases, post-traumatic states, etc.
Decoding of the blood test for sugar
The norm of sugar in capillary blood( blood taken from the finger) on an empty stomach is 3.3-5.5 mmol / l. If the sugar rises to 6.0 mmol / l, they speak of pre-diabetes.The index of 6.1 mmol / l and higher is evidence of the presence of diabetes in a person.
If blood is taken from a vein for examination, the rates are slightly increased: diabetes is diagnosed if the glycemia level exceeds 7 mmol / l. However, it should be taken into account that different equipment is used in different laboratories, therefore, when evaluating the result of the analysis, it is necessary to take into account the reference values (normal values) presented in the form of a particular medical institution.
For the glucose-tolerant test, the following results are normal:
If the analysis shows high sugar
If the patient does not have symptoms of diabetes, the venous blood test for sugar is repeated, but on another day. A second positive result gives the doctor the right to diagnose a diabetic patient.After this, it is necessary to undergo a complete examination of the body( to determine the type of diabetes, to assess the degree of vascular, heart, kidney, eye, etc.).Only having obtained all the results, the endocrinologist can select a drug for normalizing the sugar level and calculate the dose of the drug, which will ensure a stable compensation of carbohydrate metabolism.
In case of pre-diabetes, an endocrinologist should also be consulted. At this stage( the stage of impaired glucose tolerance) through diet, weight loss and lifestyle changes, it is possible to prevent or minimize the development of diabetes mellitus.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist