Thrombophlebitis - Symptoms and Treatment
Thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory process of the walls of venous vessels with the formation of a thrombus in the lumen.Most often, this disease is diagnosed in the vessels of the lower extremities, but there are cases of detection of thrombophlebitis in the veins of the upper extremities, neck and thorax.Thrombophlebitis doctors call the developed pathology of superficial veins of the lower limbs, if the inflammatory process and the formation of thrombi proceeds in deep veins, then this condition is classified as phlebotrombosis, and doctors even call it thrombosis. Table of contents: Causes of thrombophlebitis development Symptoms of thrombophlebitis Diagnosis of thrombophlebitis How to treat thrombophlebitis
Causes of thrombophlebitis development
There are several conditions that can lead to the development of the disease in question-all of which have been thoroughly studied by scientists and physicians. For such reasons are:
- any inflammatory process in the vessels - it can be local or general;
- genetic predisposition, hereditary predisposition to the formation of thrombi - coagulopathy / thrombophilic condition;
- varicose veins - a consequence of this disease may be a slowing of the rate of blood flow through the vessels;
- damage to the wall of the venous vessel - this can occur even due to a minor effect on the vein( for example, when installing a catheter).
In addition to the obvious causes of thrombophlebitis, doctors identify and risk factors - it is about certain groups of people. These factors include:
- forced bed rest for a long time - for example, during rehabilitation after a previous surgery;
- malignant tumors, treatment of oncology with radiation and / or chemotherapy;
- gynecological operations, including the artificial termination of pregnancy;
- use of long-term hormonal contraceptives;
If there is at least one of these factors, then to avoid the development of the disease under consideration it will be logical to seek the advice of a specialist - doctors will make appointments for the prevention of thrombophlebitis.
Symptoms of thrombophlebitis
Symptoms of thrombophlebitis are always pronounced and cause severe discomfort to patients - it is not surprising that patients seek medical help at an early stage of the disease.But patients clarify that with the development of characteristic inflammation of the veins of the surface symptoms will acquire an intense color gradually. The main symptoms of thrombophlebitis:
- pain in sites of localization of the inflammatory process;
- swelling of the limb;
- increased body temperature;
- on the course of the affected vein appears reddening and denser skin.
If deep vein thrombosis develops, then the first sign of the pathology will be swelling of the diseased limb.But in this case the patient can not feel any discomfort for a long time, do not seek help from a doctor - this leads to a high probability of complications of thrombophlebitis.Note: if the thrombophlebitis is already diagnosed and the abnormally high body temperature, shortness of breath, palpitations and high blood pressure, then immediately call the ambulance brigade to the house in the presence of usual symptoms( swelling and pain).This condition means a sharp deterioration in the condition of the sick vessel, and the risk of separation of the clot increases many times.
Diagnosis of thrombophlebitis
There is no single, definite, diagnostic regimen for the under consideration.The fact that the doctor after the initial examination of the patient either immediately diagnoses, or picks up something one of the following studies:
- Venography is the study of a venous channel by means of a contrast medium injected into the vessel.This method is considered obsolete, much more informative will be duplex angioscanning.
- Doppler ultrasound of venous vessels.
- Computed tomography - allows not only to accurately determine the site of narrowing of the vein, the location of the thrombus, but also to predict the further development of the disease.
But even after the exact diagnosis of "thrombophlebitis" the patient will have to undergo additional studies to find out the true cause of the development of the disease in question.This will help to prescribe effective treatment and prevent relapses.
How to treat thrombophlebitis
Only after diagnosis can a specialist prescribe a treatment - for thrombophlebitis of superficial veins, it will be with the use of certain medications, for the same disease with localization in deep-seated vessels - others.
How to treat thrombophlebitis of superficial veins
Usually, when setting such a differential diagnosis, doctors recommend that treatment be performed on an outpatient basis.But this does not mean that the patient can ignore the prescribed treatment - this will only worsen the state of health. Recommendations can be as follows:
- The course of taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - for example, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Nimesil and others.
- Local agents are also effective - specially formulated ointments and compresses.
- It is compulsory for diagnosed superficial thrombophlebitis, patients are assigned to wear compression linen - elastic bandages, a specially developed compression knitwear.
- The course of receiving funds with phlebotonic action - for example, Flebodia, Vasoket, Detralex and others.
Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins rarely requires the patient to be registered for inpatient treatment, and if the prescriptions and recommendations of the attending physician are strictly observed, then relief comes quickly.Please note: , if the doctor determines the growth of the thrombus boundaries during the control examination of the patient, this can only mean one - the progression of superficial thrombophlebitis.In this case, an operative intervention is shown, which consists in bandaging the thrombosed vein and, if possible, its removal.
How to treat deep vein thrombosis
In this case, doctors can also apply a variety of therapeutic methods - the choice is made on an individual basis.
Coagulants are mandatory - drugs that contribute to the dilution of blood.These include: Heparin, Fragmin, Warfarin, Fraksiparin and others. Important: is strictly prohibited from carrying out its own treatment with these medicinal products!The fact is that incorrectly calculated doses of coagulants can lead to serious consequences.Particularly careful to be with the drug Warfarin - it should be taken in strict accordance with the permitted dosages, monitor your health and regularly undergo a blood test.
It is compulsory for diagnosing deep vein thrombosis the doctor will advise wearing a special compression underwear - these can be stockings, elastic bandages, knitted trousers.You can wear such clothes almost around the clock, but generally about the duration of wearing compression linen is better to consult a specialist.
Installing a cava filter
This is a new method of assisting with deep vein thrombosis, which can not be called a full-value treatment.The essence of the method: a specific cava filter is implanted into the main vein of the patient's body.This makes it possible to prevent the arbitrary movement of torn off blood clots into the lower extremities, to the lungs.Cava filter "works" on the principle of a trap - it simply collects all the blood clots. Install the device in question either permanently or for 3-4 months - this issue can only be solved by a specialist.The procedure for implanting a cava filter into a vein is performed using local anesthesia and the time of finding a patient in a medical institution is minimized.
Operation with thrombophlebitis
The volume and method of surgical intervention for complicated deep vein thrombosis is chosen by a specialist after a thorough examination. In general, surgical treatment of thrombophlebitis can be performed in three ways:
- venous angioplasty;
- venous bypass;
Note: if deep vein thrombosis is diagnosed at an early stage of development, then the doctor can prescribe thrombolysis procedure.Its essence lies in the dissolution of thrombotic masses with specific drugs.Thrombolysis has many contraindications.
Thrombophlebitis - home treatment
In addition to the fact that patients need to take certain medications to ease their health, you will need to change your lifestyle.And first of all it will be about nutrition - it should be rational and full.
Nutrition for the disease in question should be complete - the menu must necessarily enter vegetables and fruits, whole grain bread, cereals and nuts.There are a number of products that must be included in the diet - they make the blood more fluid. These include:
- valerian root;
- hot chili peppers;
- hawthorn( berry bushes);
- ginkgo biloba.
It is necessary to use vitamin complexes, which contain calcium and magnesium, vitamins B6, A, C and E. Very useful will be flaxseed oil.
General recommendations of
It is necessary to change your habitual way of life - on how fully it will be possible to do, the final result of the treatment for thrombophlebitis will also depend. General recommendations of the doctors are as follows:
- During rest and night sleep, the legs should be in a raised position - this will ensure the outflow of blood from the lower extremities, prevent stagnant phenomena in the vessels of the lower extremities.
- It is absolutely forbidden for patients with a considered disease to visit baths and saunas.However, overheating is also harmful, like hypothermia.
- Avoid prolonged standing or sitting - such statistical monotonous poses can lead to poor health.
- Regular physical training - at least morning exercises and walking, as a maximum - classes in the gym.
- It is strictly forbidden to lift weights.
There are a lot of funds from the category of "traditional medicine" - various lotions, baths and compresses.You can believe in their miraculous power, you can rely only on official medicine.But!In no case is it advisable to use folk remedies for thrombophlebitis without first consulting a physician.If the disease under consideration is diagnosed at an early stage, then the effectiveness of treatment will be very high.But even if specialists recommend an operative intervention, it should not be refused - such a cardinal treatment usually leads to a complete restoration of the abilities to live fully and conduct work. Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.