Osteoarthritis: types, causes, symptoms and treatment with medicines and folk remedies
Arthrosis refers to the dystrophic changes in the joints, which are inherent in the destruction of cartilage.With such a disease, inflammatory processes develop slowly and degeneration of the periarticular tissues occurs.According to statistics, arthrosis is the most common disease in people aged 30 years and older, affects all segments of the population, regardless of gender, currently 80% of the total population of our planet has this pathology.Table of contents: Causes of arthrosis Symptoms of arthrosis and degree of artosis Principles of treatment of arthrosis
Causes of arthrosis
Arthrosis of joints begins due to the violation of metabolic processes directly in the joints.This may be due to habitual hormonal disorders, hereditary factors, old age. But doctors identify the most possible causes of the process under consideration:
- dislocations, bruises, sprains in the joints and in general any trauma in the anamnesis;
- too much body weight - this increases the load on the joints at times;
- previous arthritis of acute and purulent nature;
- diseases related to autoimmune classification - for example, scleroderma or lupus erythematosus;
- catarrhal diseases, which are frequent and severe;
- regular supercooling - this may be due to the specific nature of the work activity;
- inflammatory processes in the body, which are specific in nature - for example, syphilis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, tick-borne encephalitis;
- impaired blood supply to the head of the femur - Perthes disease;
- disorders in the functioning of the thyroid gland;
- Hemophilia - impaired blood clotting.
Do not exclude the fact of malnutrition - this can lead to metabolic disorders, which is the main reason for the development of arthrosis.A greater likelihood of occurrence of the pathological process under consideration is available to miners, smiths, metallurgists and all people who regularly experience great physical exertion.The doctor tells about the mechanism of deforming arthrosis of the joints:
Symptoms of arthrosis and degree of arthrosis
The main sign of the considered disease is pain - it occurs when excessive physical exertion on specific joints, at rest can subside, and periodically against a pain syndrome in the area affected by inflammatoryThe process of the joint may cause hyperemia( redness of the skin) and swelling. In general, doctors distinguish 4 main groups of signs of developing arthrosis:
- Pain .Of course, this symptom is typical for many diseases, but with arthrosis there are some features of the pain in the joint:
- unpleasant sensations occur only when the movement occurs;
- as soon as a person enters the joint at rest, the syndrome disappears.
Please note: the pathological process under consideration is developing very slowly, therefore at the beginning of its course arthrosis worries only with occasional joint pains only with excessive loads.At night, patients' pain does not bother, sleep is not disturbed.Then, as arthrosis progresses, morning pains begin to appear - they are characterized by patients as "lumbago", differ in short duration and occur only in the early morning.
If arthrosis is in a neglected state, the pain syndrome acquires an acute and permanent character - even potent anesthetic drugs can not reduce its intensity.
- Reduced joint mobility .This is also considered one of the characteristic symptoms of arthrosis, but it appears already at the stage of active disease progression.During the development of arthrosis, the growth / germination of bone growth occurs, which leads to spasms of muscle tissue, a decrease in clearance in the joint bag - restriction of movement in this place is guaranteed.
- Crunch. The joints crunch even in absolutely healthy people, but for arthrosis there is a distinctive feature of the crunch - it is "dry", not snapping and always accompanied by acute pain.
- Joint deformation .This phenomenon occurs during the growth of osteophytes and is considered one of the most late signs of arthrosis, which appears at the stage of decompensated development of the pathological process under consideration.
The X-ray picture of arthrosis on each of the 4 degrees is shown below:
For more details about the symptoms of arthrosis, the specialist tells:
Note: progresses very slowly and can not be characterized in the first stageNo symptoms, and unstable pain in the joints and increased fatigue can be inherent even in healthy people with high physical exertion.Therefore, independent diagnosis of arthrosis is almost impossible.
The processes occurring in the joint tissues at each stage of arthrosis are shown in the diagram:
Principles of arthrosis treatment
- Doctors say that the treatment of diseased joints is necessary at an early stage in the development of pathology,Getting rid of inflammatory processes, but also the restoration of already lost functions.Doctors can apply various methods of treatment of arthrosis - this is the appointment of medications, and physical therapy, and regular spa treatment.In any case, therapy for the pathology in question should be comprehensive and based on the following basic methods:
- Relieve the burden of the affected joint.This does not mean that the patient should maintain strict bed rest, but as much as possible to reduce the burden on the problematic part of the body is necessary - for example, to change jobs or to give up training.
- Clearly adhere to the schedule of exercise therapy - such appointment is made by the attending physician, and the training should be conducted by a specialist.
- Mandatory treatment of arthrosis should include physiotherapy - magnetotherapy, electrotherapy, laser and shock wave therapy.
- Visiting specialized resorts - sanatorium treatment will help not only to successfully carry out the rehabilitation / rehabilitation period after the main course of treatment, but also to prevent relapses of arthrosis.
- Accurate performance of all appointments of a physician in relation to medicinal products.
- Conduction of intra-articular blockade.
- Correction of the diet.
In the complex of drug therapy, the following drugs should be used:
- Anti-inflammatory.This group of drugs performs two functions at once: relieves the pain syndrome and relieves the inflammatory process.Doctors use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for arthrosis, and do not prescribe them orally( in tablets) - this category of drugs acts irritatingly on the gastric mucosa.Given that the course of therapy for arthrosis is long enough, the patient can get rid of the underlying disease, but "earn" yourself gastritis( inflammation of the stomach) and even peptic ulcer.Therefore, depending on the particular drug chosen, they are administered intravenously or intramuscularly.In pharmacy chains, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be purchased and for local use - such ointments can be used, but they do not give a powerful effect or a long-term result.
- Hormonal corticosteroids.This group of drugs is most effective in the period of exacerbation of arthrosis.Most often doctors prescribe Diprospan or Hydrocortisone - injections are made intramuscularly.But a similar category of drugs in pharmacies is presented in the form of patches, ointments - they are used only externally, you can expect a fairly fast and powerful effect.
- Chondroprotectors.These drugs contribute to the restoration of cartilaginous tissue.Most often, doctors use Glucosamine or Chondroitin Sulphate for the treatment of arthrosis. Note: course of therapy with these drugs is very long, but if within 6 months there are no positive results, chondroprotectors either completely cancel or correct their dosage.
Very often in the treatment of arthrosis, experts appoint Diacerein - it promotes the degeneration of cartilage tissue.But doctors warn their patients that a quick effect after taking Diacerein should not wait - noticeable positive shifts will begin not earlier than two weeks after taking the drug.
Note: if the patient was hospitalized with arthrosis at the most difficult stage of development and the doctors can not remove the pain syndrome with any pain medication, then narcotic analgesics may be prescribed exceptionally, but this is rarely done.
The importance of proper nutrition for arthrosis is difficult to assess - if the patient ignores the recommendations of nutritionists, then the treatment of the pathological process in question can drag on for years, and the results will not be very high.
Things to remember for those patients who are forced to undergo anti-arthrosis therapy:
- Be sure to correct your weight - it's strictly forbidden to starve( the nutrition of cartilage tissues in the joints will be broken), but it is necessary to abandon flour and sweet dishes;
- It is forbidden to drink alcohol, especially beer - firstly, they are incompatible with many medications and can provoke an active allergic reaction, and secondly, it is alcohol and beer that serve as the reasons for a set of extra pounds;
- In the diet, you must always introduce a cold - this product restores connective tissue and strengthens the cartilage.
- Be sure to control the intake of sufficient amounts of vitamin B in the body. You can, of course, take advantage of vitamin complexes, but it is realistic to get the required amount of this substance and from products - fish, beans, beans, cabbage and tomatoes should be on the menu every day.
- The diet should contain bananas, nuts, liver poultry, milk, eggs and mushrooms.Of these products, folic acid, riboflavin and pyridoxine will enter the body - they are very helpful in treating the pathological process under consideration.
Folk Arthrosis Treatment
There are several dozens of folk methods for treating arthrosis, but they will only relieve unpleasant symptoms, but they will not eliminateNo inflammation, or the main cause of the disease.Of course, compresses and applications, ointments and gels with horse chestnut, cabbage leaf and lilac tincture will have an analgesic effect and even allow the patient to return to the usual rhythm of life for a while. But doctor's consultation is absolutely necessary:
- first, you need to make sure that the joints are affected by arthrosis;
- second, the use of specific drugs significantly reduces the recovery process;
- third, the doctors will be able to establish the true cause of the degeneration process, to direct the forces to their elimination, which leads to a complete cure.
To get more information about the causes, symptoms of arthrosis and methods of treating arthrosis, take a look at this video:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.