Pharyngitis: symptoms, treatment
Mar 25, 2018
Pharyngitis is an inflammatory process on the pharyngeal mucosa, which is accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the form of a sore throat, discomfort when swallowing.Contents:
Varieties of the disease
There are three parts of the pharynx - the lower one, called the hypopharynx, the middle( oropharynx) and the uppermost( the so-called nasopharynx).These or other manifestations and varieties of pharyngitis depend on the site of inflammation localization.However, if the disease begins with an acute period, then it is difficult to make a specific separation of symptoms, since all three departments are affected almost simultaneously.
Infection( regardless of its nature - viral or bacterial) has a migratory nature, but more often it descends: it descends from the nasopharynx into the larynx.This process is clearly visible from the morphological changes in the mucosa, therefore, the otolaryngologist can with a high degree of probability determine the current localization of the inflammation.
There are two main types of pharyngitis - acute and chronic.
In acute form the disease develops rapidly.It provokes infection, as well as contributing factors: smoking, stay in the cold, irritation of the pharynx, alcohol intake.It is also possible to observe acute pharyngitis in the form of concomitant disease with various respiratory infections or gastrointestinal disorders.
The most common viral etiology of acute pharyngitis.About a third of all cases fall on a bacterial infection.The patient swells one or two sites of the pharynx, infiltrates the mucosa, desquamation of the epithelium.It is important to prevent the complication of the process, as the inflammation can spread to the auditory tubes.
Swelling of the follicle of the pharyngeal back wall and their fusion provoke granulosa pharyngitis, a type of acute disease.In addition to a viral or bacterial pathogen, pharyngitis can provoke a fungal infection of the mucosa.In this case, fungal pharyngitis develops.Also described cases of allergic pharyngitis - a condition in which the allergic reaction takes the form of inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa.
As a result of damage to the mucosa in any part of the throat, traumatic pharyngitis may develop.The inflammatory process is the response to a prolonged or severe one-time mechanical irritation of the upper layer of the epithelium.It can be a surgical intervention or a foreign body in the throat.
The form of pharyngitis, in which acute inflammation flows into a constant process, is called chronic.
Chronic pharyngitis, , in turn, is divided into hypertrophic, atrophic and catarrhal.
In this case:
- Hypertrophic pharyngitis is accompanied by a change in all layers of the pharyngeal mucosa, it thickens, increasing the amount of epithelium.Dense mucous membrane, on which the blood vessels and lymph vessels are dilated is the main sign of hypertrophy in pharyngitis.Also during this process, lymphoid formations expand, neighboring lymph glands merge, hypersecretion appears.All this occurs on the posterior or lateral walls of the pharynx.
- Atrophic form, on the contrary, means thinning of the mucosa.Its dryness is noted, glands are diminishing.
- Catarrh of pharyngitis differs from diffuse venous hyperemia.Simultaneously, stasis of veins of small caliber, perivascular infiltration and pastose of the pharyngeal mucosa can occur.
The main causes and causes of pharyngitis
The main reasons for the development of pharyngitis are long inhalation of cold air( in severe frost), irritation of the pharynx with chemicals( for example, alcohol in drinking alcohol), air pollution.
Infectious etiology of the disease is observed when the body is infected with viruses, bacteria( microbes) and fungi.
Also contributing factors are:
- nasal breathing disorder;
- adverse climate;
- bad ecology;
- disease of the digestive tract;
- dental problems;
- alcohol abuse;
- hormonal failures;
- reception very cold or too hot food.
The chronic form of the disease occurs when the acute treatment of the acute stage is incorrect, and also when the true cause of pharyngitis has not been established.
Provokes chronic disease with prolonged throat irritation.There may be repeated inflammation or an increase in the localization of the process.The most obvious cause of this kind of pharyngitis are various infectious diseases that occur in a chronic form, for example, tuberculosis.
Signs and Symptoms of Pharyngitis
The most pronounced symptom of pharyngitis in acute form is pain when swallowed.Especially it is felt with an empty pharynx, when the dryness irritates the mucous.It can also be a fever, general weakness, perspiration.Sometimes discomfort can spread to the ears.
Important : symptoms of pharyngitis are very similar to other serious infectious diseases, therefore it is important to establish the aetiology of the disease in time by excluding measles , scarlet fever , rubella .
In chronic form, pharyngitis manifests itself as a lump in the throat, when there is often a desire to clear the larynx, to clear your throat.All this can be accompanied by a malaise, often the body temperature rises.Among the important symptoms is a cough, he always has typical symptoms: dryness, tearing, special emphasis on the throat area.A person is forced to swallow constantly the mucus that forms on the back wall of the larynx.This gives a lot of inconvenience, quality of life and sleep is disturbed, irritability, nervousness appears.
Note: chronic pharyngitis rarely occurs as an independent disease.Basically, this is only a consequence of more serious problems, for example, with the organs of the digestive tract.
It is necessary to examine the body for diseases such as cholecystitis, pancreatitis and gastritis.If they are found, then until complete recovery, it is in vain to fight chronic pharyngitis.His symptoms will persist as long as there is an affected area in the body.
Complications of the disease
The most obvious complication of acute pharyngitis is the leakage into a chronic form.This is possible with ineffective treatment or nonexistence at all.
Also to the list of complications include such diseases :
- Pharynx abscess.
- Tracheitis.Acute articular rheumatism.
- Peritonsillar abscess.
- Chronic bronchitis.
- Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
- Inflammation of the auditory tube, as well as the inner ear.
- Cervical lymphadenitis.
In order to diagnose the pharyngitis in time, you need to visit the otolaryngologist( ENT).He examines the patient's throat, assesses the condition of the mucosa and oral cavity.It may also be necessary to carry out pharyngoscopy or a referral to a microbiological analysis, a blood test for antibodies to streptococcal bacteria.
In the diagnosis of pharyngitis, it is necessary to exclude acute tonsillitis, as the symptoms of these two diseases are very similar.
Treatment of pharyngitis
If the disease is local in nature, without significantly affecting the overall well-being of the patient - symptomatic therapy is sufficient.It includes a diet, warming compresses on the neck and legs, drinking milk, inhalation of steam, rinsing and irrigation of the pharynx.
Note: uncomplicated pharyngitis in adults and children does not require antibacterial treatment of .
Antimicrobial agents are actively used in the form of lozenges, tablets for resorption, insufflation, solutions for inhalation and rinsing.
Drugs and medications for the treatment of pharyngitis
The most commonly used tablets, lozenges and lozenges, such as Neo-angin, Sepptelet, Strepsils, Hexaliz, Pharyngosept.Iodine containing preparations are also prescribed: "Iodinol", "Vokadin", "Yoks".Effective and sulfonamides: "Ingalipt", "Bicarmint".
For cases of neglected form of pharyngitis, antibiotics are needed, for example, from a number of natural or synthetic penicillins, as well as cephalosporins.The latter are applied if the pharyngitis is sufficiently started, caused complications and significantly affects the patient's condition.
Antibiotics of the tetracycline series are little used today, but they can be prescribed in case of resistance of the body to antibacterial drugs of other species.
Relatively new drug "Imudon" is a multivalent complex with lysates of fungi and bacteria that cause acute bacterial pharyngitis.To gargle the throat, apply "Geksoral", which has an antimicrobial and analgesic effect, which significantly reduces the degree of discomfort when swallowing.
Treatment of pharyngitis with folk remedies
At home, it is possible to prepare herbal preparations and rinses based on recipes of traditional medicine.This treatment of pharyngitis will ease the patient's condition and enhance the effect of traditional drugs.All the used drugs should be discussed and agreed with the attending physician in advance.
Here are some recipes that can be used to relieve the condition with symptoms of pharyngitis:
- Prepare a collection of peppermint, oak bark and lavender flowers.The proportion is 2: 4: 1.One teaspoon of chopped herbs are poured in boiling water in a thermos and insisted for about 4 hours.Broth rinse the pharynx or do inhalation.
- Chamomile flowers( 2 parts) and bark ayr bark( 1 part) are mixed and poured with boiling water in the calculation of 1 tablespoon per glass of water.After several hours of infusion, the liquid is filtered and the throat rinsed.
- Another recipe for rinsing is infusion of the bark of leaf-shaped elm.A teaspoon of crushed bark pour 1 tbsp.Boiling water, and after two hours of infusion, strain and conduct regular rinses until the patient's condition is relieved.
If there are symptoms of pharyngitis and during the treatment of the disease, monitor the temperature of the food.It should not be hot or cold.It is also important to avoid solid foods that can mechanically irritate the pharynx.Food should be thoroughly chewed, because during a long stay in the mouth, it will acquire a normal body temperature and consistency.
It is important to enrich the diet with products containing calcium, magnesium, iodine zinc.
Features of the course of the disease and the treatment of pharyngitis in children
In small patients, pharyngitis is more difficult, because it is difficult to diagnose it.Often the symptoms of the inflammatory process in the throat are joined by a runny nose, wheezing, dry, painful cough. The pharyngitis in children can often be confused with other diseases, for example, with bronchial asthma.It is very important to conduct a correct and timely differential diagnosis.
Important: when treating a disease, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the organism before the 2-year age.Such children should not be prescribed throat irrigation with the help of a spray.This can lead to spasm, which, in turn, sometimes provokes a stopping of breathing.
Features of pharyngitis in pregnant women
Since the treatment of pharyngitis is mainly local, that is, drugs that are not absorbed into the bloodstream are used, there are no special instructions for treating pregnant women.
However, it is worth knowing that pharyngitis during pregnancy may require antibacterial therapy, which is contraindicated in this period.In this case, the physician determines the expediency of using antibiotics, correlating the benefits and effects of taking drugs with potential risks for the mother and fetus.
In order to prevent the body should take care of its immunity.It is necessary to regularly use vitamins and vitamin-containing vegetables and fruits, preparations of propolis, products of beekeeping.
It is useful to be near the sea, to breathe in pairs of iodine.Never hinder the conduct of gentle hardening.However, you need to start it strictly in the warm season.
Trofimova Yaroslava, medical reviewer