Otitis in adults: classification, symptoms and treatment.Otitis in pregnant women
Mar 27, 2018
How to treat otitis in adults?
Any drops in the treatment of otitis can be used only if the tympanic membrane is intact( this can only be confirmed by a specialist).
Under the diagnosis of otitis media, an inflammatory process is thought to be localized in one of the calves of the ear.
are three ear card - on the location of the inflammatory process depends name / classification otitis:
- Otitis externa - includes the auricle and the external auditory meatus.The pathology in this department of the organ under consideration is called external otitis media;
- Middle Otitis - it is separated from the outer eardrum, the department includes a drum cavity and auditory ossicles.Doctors inflammation in the middle ear is classified as otitis media;
- Internal otitis media - consists of labyrinths: bone and membranous.In this department of the body, internal otitis is diagnosed.
Classification of otitis
Classification of otitis seen not only on the basis of the localization of the inflammatory process, but also on the nature of the flow:
- acute otitis media;
- Acute otitis lasts a maximum of 3 weeks;
- subacute kind of the considered disease - a maximum of 3 months;
- chronic otitis media - more than 3 months.
The infectious and non-infectious nature of the inflammatory process in the ears is also distinguished - non-infectious, in turn, may include allergic and traumatic otitis. Separate physicians consider types of inflammation:
- is a catarrhal type - otitis occurs without any discharge;
- exudative - discharge from the ear can be bloody or represent an effusion;
- purulent otitis - purulent contents are secreted from the ear.
Otitis may develop as a result of infection in the ear of the nasopharynx, oral cavity( e.g., dental caries), but the same inflammatory process may appear on the background of the ear injury. The main reasons for the development of the inflammatory process under consideration are:
- diagnosed adenoid tissue proliferation( adenoids), polyps with nasal passage / sinus localization, decompensated / chronic tonsillitis( inflammation of the tonsils), benign or malignant tumors;
- chronic edema of the nasal mucosa with frequent recurrences of acute respiratory viral infections;
- pressure drops - for example, when climbing, flight on the plane( takeoff / landing);
- decreased immunity - for chronic diseases: diabetes, any autoimmune pathologies, overwork;
- differential pressure when immersed in water and floating - called mareotitis.
Note: otitis externa often occurs against a background ear trauma, furuncle on the formed-ear or in the ear canal, or as a complication of otitis media on the condition of purulent secretions.
Otitis in adults
The disease under consideration in adults proceeds according to the same scheme - both symptomatology and treatment are identical for all ages and does not depend on the sex of the patient.
Signs and symptoms of otitis
Symptoms considered an inflammatory disease in adults will depend on exactly which department localized inflammation.
patient occurs sufficiently intense pain in opening the mouth, at a pressure in the ear.The auricle becomes strongly hyperemic and edematic, purulent contents are released from the skin, but only if a furuncle is formed during the development of the inflammatory process.
This type of inflammatory process is most often diagnosed in both adults and children.
For him, otitis media will have the following symptoms:
- acute pain in the ear - patients describe it as shooting, drilling, pulsing;
- increase in body temperature to 38 or higher - typical only in acute inflammatory process;
- at night the pain syndrome becomes more intense;
- hearing is reduced, ringing in the ears, "rustling";
- pain can radiate to the temple, eye or jaw - the patient develops a feeling that all teeth begin to hurt at the same time.
Note: , the above symptoms are inherent in the first stage of otitis media development, as other inflammatory processes progress, other signs of pathology join:
- the pain subsides - this only occurs when the eardrum is broken;
- appears purulent discharge from the auditory canal;
- body temperature is stabilized.
The stages and symptoms of acute otitis media are described in more detail in the table:
When the final stage of otitis media develops, the patient complains only of insignificant hearing loss - the tympanic membrane is cicatrized, the inflammation passes, the purulent discharge ceases.
This type of pathological process is characterized by mild dizziness, nausea with vomiting, hearing loss and constant tinnitus.
Note: Internal otitis media is always a complication of the inflammatory process in the middle ear.
How to treat otitis in adults?
If the patient is diagnosed with otitis media of the middle ear, then he is hospitalized. The treatment of these patients is in accordance with the developed scheme:
- Antibiotics( antibacterial drugs) are prescribed - for example, Ceftriaxone, Clindamycin, Amoxiclav.Most often they are taken orally or in the form of injections.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - Diclofenac, Indomethacin - will also be effective.They are able to reduce the intensity of the pain syndrome and reduce the level of inflammation.
- If the pathological process is delayed, doctors can take a surgical procedure - dissect the tympanic membrane to facilitate the outflow of purulent contents. Please note : antibiotics must be administered to the cavity behind the eardrum.
- In the ear, vasoconstrictive drops are instilled - Otipax, camphor oil or Sofrax.
After reduction of inflammation, the patient is given a rehabilitative therapy - blowing out the auditory tube, tympanic massage, which helps to restore hearing.
Note: if the patient is diagnosed with internal otitis, the course of treatment will be 10 days and will include shock doses of antibiotics, dehydration-type therapy and recovery.
In adults, you can cure otitis and folk remedies, but note that all of the following drugs can be used only with non-infectious inflammatory process or simultaneously with the passage of drug therapy.
The most effective tools in the category of traditional medicine are:
- Applying to the sick ear, chamomile and elderberry - flowers and leaves of plants must be steamed in boiling water, put in a textile bag and conduct a heating procedure.
- Burying the basil juice in the ear - you can get it yourself from fresh greens.For adults, the dosage will be 8 drops in one ear.
- Using a bay leaf, you will need 2-3 leaves of laurel and a glass of boiling water, a medicinal preparation is prepared like ordinary tea.Then you need to strain the infusion and you can dig it into the sick ear by 3-5 drops.
In folk medicine, there is also not an ordinary way to treat otitis in adults - you need to take a small piece of onion and lay it in a sore ear, from above - apply something warm( scarf, scarf).Healers and patients who have already tried this method say that after 2-3 days and pain passes, and the inflammation disappears.Official medicine does not consider this method to be absolutely curative, but it can not do any damage to the onions - it's worth trying.
Forecasts and possible complications of otitis
During development of otitis, the patient may get a feeling of recovery even without the use of medications or any procedures according to folk recipes. This condition is manifested by the abating of pain, the normalization of the general condition, but this is a false relief that can lead to the development of serious and even life-threatening diseases:
- brain abscess;
When treated in accordance with the recommendations of doctors, the predictions are favorable - the average duration of therapy is 10 days, relapses are rare.
Otitis in pregnant women
Acute otitis in pregnant women proceeds according to the standard scheme - there is a sharp pain in the ear, there is a feeling that all the teeth hurt.The woman is concerned about the obstruction of the ear canal, fever and general weakness.To cure acute otitis in the period of bearing a child is necessary - this is the source of infection, which is absolutely undesirable during pregnancy. But self-medication can not be dealt with categorically:
- First, you need to know exactly which of the types of otitis develops - infectious / non-infectious, purulent / medium, exudative / catarrhal;
- secondly, the reception of any, even the safest at first glance, medicines should be coordinated with the otolaryngologist and gynecologist;
- third, some drugs( drops in the ears) can not be used at the time of rupture of the eardrum - this fact can be established only by a specialist.
Chronic otitis occurs during pregnancy in a slightly different way:
- a woman feels a constant weakness;
- complain of increased drowsiness even after a good rest and headache.
Treatment of a chronic type of inflammation in the ear should also be controlled by doctors - the drugs that the patient used as therapeutic measures before conception may be contraindicated.
During pregnancy, it is important not to use cold and / or hot compresses to treat otitis, water should be avoided in the problem ear.During the gestation of a child, even with folk remedies, otitis treatment is prohibited - any decision about therapeutic measures should be taken only by a doctor.
On preventive measures, types of otitis and methods of effective treatment specialists say:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.