Types of human memory: what do you know about them?
Memory is an amazing feature that feeds at the right time from the subconscious mind the word, image, smell.The ability to remember is inherent in many living organisms, but human memory is the most developed, characterized by a high level, diverse species.
Human memory types
Human memory types are conditioned by analyzers transmitting information about the surrounding reality.
- sensory( tactile)
People have all types of memory.Already a newborn has some.Thanks to the olfactory memory, the mother distinguishes herself from other people.
It is possible to observe taste memory by replacing the habitual feeding with a different mixture( the baby will be suspicious of the new taste).
The most developed is considered visual memory.It is thanks to her that images of objects of the surrounding world are stored and reproduced, people are recognized.
The auditory memory stores information coming from the hearing organs( music, speech).
Olfactory memory - storage of various odors.Formed during life, some reach a high level of development.
Touch( sensory) memory - remembering the sensations that arise when you come into contact with a specific object.Usually complements the visual image, enriching it with the temperature and texture of the subject.
The taste memory is based on memorizing the taste of various products.Anyone will recall the taste of the usual dishes or products once tried.
Some people have a predominant memory type over the rest.
Artists have advanced visual memory, are able to recreate the exact portrait, painting, without having the original in front of their eyes.
Musicians with a high level of auditory memory are able to repeat a piece of music, heard once, in detail, accurately reproducing notes.
The level of development of various types of memory should be considered in training.They can be developed by special exercises.
For more information on the types of memory you can get from the video.
Types of human memory in psychology
Psychologists view memory as a process, a complex of mental functions provided by higher nervous activity.This approach allows us to give a more versatile description.
Duration of storage of images allows to distinguish:
- Short-term memory.It is characterized by the rapid memorization of a small number of objects( 5-10 elements).Images are saved for 30 seconds-a-minute.
- Operative.It differs in that the material is preserved, while it is necessary to achieve the task.The information storage period is different: several days or weeks.
- Long-term.Information is stored for a long time, the volume is unlimited.Over time, the information is compressed, while its quality is improving.
The basis of the following classification is mental activity.
The following varieties are distinguished:
- Emotional.Ability to remember feelings, emotions.
- Image.The leading form of memory in childhood, it is easier for a child to imagine an object seen with his own eyes than an unknown person by description.It relies entirely on experience, information received from the senses( taste, color, smell, sound, image).
- Word-logical.Ability to think in abstract categories.Analysis of the received information, preservation of its logical blocks.
- Motor( motor).Memorization of various movements, ways of action with different objects.Hand movement during writing, brushing teeth - actions are performed without thinking about the sequence of elements.Motor memory is the basis of action with working tools, mechanisms.
By the presence of the target:
- Arbitrary.The material is remembered for a specific purpose.Assumes the presence of strong-willed efforts for memorization.
- Involuntary.There is no purpose to remember information, no effort is made.Invisibly memorized bright, colorful objects, repetitive actions.
Psychology regards memory as a multilateral process, and therefore its characteristics are different.
Emotional memory of a person
Bright impressions, which caused strong feelings and emotions, persist for a long time.It does not matter whether they were positive or negative.
The peculiarity is that emotions are remembered in connection with objects, events and phenomena that caused them.
This further restrains or encourages a person to perform similar actions.Emotional memory is long-term.After a long time, people usually remember the emotional response, sometimes re-experiencing the former emotions.
The mechanism for preserving vivid impressions continues to be studied by psychologists.Studies have shown that an important role is played by the action of hormones, which is absent in the mechanisms of other species.
Emotional memory is the basis for building a sense of compassion.A person remembers experiences in a similar situation, understands better, perceives pain and feelings of other people closer.
Developed emotional memory serves as the basis for some professions.The actor will better play the scene, drawing from experience similar experiences.Educators and teachers the ability to empathize and empathize, based on personal experience, will be a good base for professional skills.
Sometimes psychologists use a specific name for emotional memory - a mnemonic flash, most accurately reflecting the mechanism for the formation of memorable sensual images.
RAM includes the processes of storing the information necessary to perform specific actions to achieve a specific goal.
When the goal is achieved, the information becomes irrelevant.The second name of RAM in psychology, working memory, most accurately reflects the essence of the process.Memory uses the material from short-term and long-term memory.
The allocation of RAM as a separate type raises the controversy of psychologists.
Some scientists consider it a kind of short-term memory, suggest treating both species together.The second argue that the mechanisms of operative memory are peculiar, that is why it should be considered an independent kind.
The main difference between RAM is the connection of information directly with the action, recording its intermediate results.The duration of storage and use of the material is determined by the duration of the achievement of the goal.
The characteristics of RAM( the number of elements, the speed of storage, the length of storage of information) are completely dependent on specific tasks, differ in different cases.
Improving human memory
Many people note poor memory.Sometimes this is completely true, hinders the performance of professional duties.
Memory can be improved not only during the period of the formation of nervous and mental processes.Mature people actually achieve better memory, will only have a little work on the weaknesses.
It is necessary to define the memorization phase that fails: obtaining information, storing or retrieving the material.Next, you should perform some exercises that improve these processes.
Exercises to improve memory:
- Cause of bad memory - inattention?Simple exercises that increase the concentration of attention will help.Try to remember every little thing every day, focus on them.In the evening, it is advisable to recall what you saw.Gradually concentration( observation) will be achieved faster, easier.
- Do not try to remember the material at the time of increased emotionality and employment.Read the entire information, without details.In a more relaxed atmosphere, you will return to it and be able to make out difficult moments.
- The repetition of information contributes to a strong memorization.Repeat the name of the person many times during treatment, conversation, phone number.At the right time, the memory will return the information.
- Concentration of attention will help a few simple tips.Take your time off work.Climb up, open the window, take a few deep breaths.Focus on the breath, abstract from the surrounding environment.A respite, an influx of oxygen will help to concentrate more effectively, increasing the concentration of attention will increase the speed and quality of memorization.
- Easier to remember interesting.Try to find interest in the subject, artificially invent it, create yourself an intrigue.Excitement and curiosity will help to quickly and better remember the material.
- In memory, rely on human memory types, better developed.One will remember the read text faster, the second will be heard, the third will master the material using imagery representations, logical correspondences.
- Draw on strong varieties to quickly and well remember, do not forget to train weak ones.Try to perceive sound information more often if the auditory memory is not developed enough.Constant training will give results.
Memory is subject to improvement - it's enough to make a little effort.
Memory processes are caused by heredity, and they are developed by people.Train your memory constantly.Take on an activity that requires intense brain work and the memorization of a significant amount of information.Continuous practice will increase the amount of memory and will serve the development of other characteristics.