Androgen deficiency: causes, manifestations, classification, diagnosis and treatment methods
Androgen deficiency is a biochemical and clinical syndrome of a deficiency of the male sex hormone testosterone in the blood.More often manifested in adulthood, which is due to the natural aging of the body.
Important! After 50 years, this syndrome is considered physiological.The lack of testosterone has a negative effect on the body as a whole.Types of androgen deficiency Symptoms of decreased testosterone levels in men Causes of androgen deficiency Diagnosis Treatment Methods Consequences and complications Prevention of androgen deficiency
Types of androgen deficiency
Depending on the level of testosterone in the blood, two kinds of deficiency are determined:
- Absolute insufficiency.The level of testosterone is less than 12 nm / l.
- Relative insufficiency.A smooth annual drop in testosterone levels is within normal limits.
Depending on the level of damage, the androgen deficiency is divided into primary and secondary.
By the time of manifestation on prepubertal and post-pubertal.
Based on the etiology of congenital, acquired and idiopathic.
Symptoms of a decreased level of testosterone in men
The main symptoms of androgen deficiency :
- with age, the libido and erection are significantly reduced, hair falls out, which can lead to mental disorders and infertility;
- decreases the sensitivity of the male genital organ;
- to achieve orgasm is more difficult;
- decreases the amount of ejaculate;
- testes decrease in size;
- decreases muscle mass, the amount of fat deposits increases;
- increased sweating;
- depression and irritability;
- increases the fragility of bones;
- labored urination.
In case of symptoms, consult an andrologist, endocrinologist and urologist.
Causes of androgen deficiency
The main causes of the development of androgen deficiency:
- underdevelopment of the gonads;
- heart failure;
- undescended testicles - cryptorchidism;
- chronic lung disease;
- arterial hypertension;
- inflammatory processes;
- diabetes mellitus;
- physical inactivity;
- thyroid disease;
- therapy with glucocorticoids.
Diagnostics are started from the patient's questionnaire in order to identify the symptoms, as well as to obtain information about the transferred or chronic diseases.Then they conduct an examination, during which they pay attention to the body weight, the condition of the hair, the size of the penis and the testicles.The doctor performs a rectal examination: palpation assesses the condition of the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland.
In addition, the following studies are prescribed:
- blood test for sex hormones: estradiol, testosterone, LH, FSH, prolactin;
- the cause of the occurrence of androgen deficiency will help to reveal a blood test for thyroid hormones;
- is a general blood test in which the level of erythrocytes, leukocytes and hemoglobin is determined.This study will help to identify inflammatory processes and assess the state of the immune system;
- urine test: the presence of red blood cells and the amount of protein, leukocytes.It allows to reveal inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system;
- biochemical blood test.Allows you to monitor the level of glucose and atherogenic components in the blood;
- ultrasound of the scrotum and pelvic organs;
- densitometry is an X-ray method that determines the density of bone tissue;
- definition of PSA.A substance secreted by the prostate gland to reduce sperm viscosity.Elevated levels indicate inflammation in the prostate gland.
Attention! In some cases, it may be necessary to consult an endocrinologist or urologist andrologist.
In conservative treatment, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed for androgens.
Types of hormone replacement therapy
- Use of ointments and gels with hormonal drugs.
- The intake of hormonal drugs in tablets.
- Introduction of hormonal drugs under the skin.
- Application of patches containing hormonal preparations.
Basic principles of substitution therapy
- Individually evaluate indications and contraindications to therapy.
- Use minimal therapeutic doses of the drugs.
- The preparation should be individually selected for each patient.
- Annually monitor the level of PSA and prostate status, by rectal examination.
- Conduct a special examination on the background of therapy, which includes:
- rectal finger examination;
- definition of PSA;
- general blood test;
- ultrasound of the scrotum and pelvic organs;
- biochemical blood test.
Important! Androgens are not prescribed for prostate cancer, severe obstruction of the urinary tract, during pregnancy planning.
Consequences and complications
If the time is not to begin a qualified treatment, androgen deficiency can lead to such complications:
- of erectile dysfunction;
- progression of concomitant diseases;
- is depressed.
Prevention of androgen deficiency
To prevent disease, eat well.Eliminate fried and fatty foods from the diet, and also reduce salt intake.
Keep an active lifestyle, exercise regularly and take vitamins.
Timely treat chronic diseases.Monitor your blood pressure daily.
After 45 years on a regular basis, take a blood test for the level of hormones in the blood.
Every year you go to the urologist to diagnose hidden diseases and start treatment.