Orchitis: symptoms, treatment
Orchitis is a serious disease of the male genitourinary organs, which is characterized by inflammatory processes of one or both testicles.In case of incorrect or untimely treatment, bilateral defeat leads to infertility.Due to different reasons, orchitis can develop in boys and men of different ages.It proceeds in a chronic or acute form.Contents: At risk Reasons orchitis symptoms orchitis Diagnostics Traditional medicine against orchitis Conservative treatment of orchitis Surgery Prevention and possible consequences
Among the factors predisposing to the development of orchitis, isolated :
- sitWork or a sedentary lifestyle;
- regular physical or severe mental fatigue;
- overheating or overcooling, reducing the protective functions of the body and contributing to the development of the disease;
- sexual abstinence or excess, as well as irregular sexual life;
- chronic foci of infections - bronchitis, sinusitis, etc.;
- severe diseases( AIDS, diabetes, hepatitis), reducing the overall resistance of the body;
- a complicated outflow of urine, prostatitis, pyelonephritis and other problems of the genitourinary system.
main cause orchitis in newborn boys - getting infection through inflamed umbilical vessels.At the older age, it usually appears as a complication in a number of diseases, for example, epidemic parotitis( mumps).In rare cases, its cause is a testicle injury, a hematogenous infection or a prolonged catheterization.
The most common factor in the occurrence of orchitis in adults is infection. Moreover, penetration may occur from the surrounding organs( colon, prostate, urethra, bladder) or distant foci in a number of diseases:. Pneumonia, sinusitis, bronchitis, tonsillitis, etc. A potential source of danger is sexual intercourse are specific with pathogens orchitis( Syphilis, gonorrhea) or urogenital( chlamydia, mycoplasma) infections.
Specialists note cases when inflammation of both testicles develops as a complication in epidemic parotitis.It manifests itself on the 3rd or 10th day of the course of the disease and can potentially cause infertility.However, with timely treatment, this probability is minimized.
Other viral diseases may cause orchitis :
- parainfluenza and influenza;
- herpes and others.
Orchitis also cause congestion in the genitals and pelvis.This may be a violation of outflow of seminal fluid or blood circulation.The inflammation of the testicles due to the injuries is not excluded.When diagnosing a disease, a combination of several factors is often identified.For example, stagnant phenomena are combined with the presence of pathogenic microflora.With wrong( untimely) treatment, problems with the immune system, the disease becomes chronic.
Acute orchitis occurs suddenly and is followed by hyperthermia( up to 38-39 ° C) as the local temperature rise is observed.The main symptom of the disease is pain in the testicle, which is particularly noticeable during movement.Perhaps their distribution to the inguinal and lumbar region, sacrum and perineum.On the side of the affected testicle, the scrotum greatly increases( 2 or more times), the skin folds turn red and almost completely smoothed out.They acquire a glossy, glossy, like a polished look.
Even without treatment in the vast majority of cases, symptoms of orchitis occur after 2-4 weeks.However, there is a possibility of progression of the inflammatory process, which results in an abscess of the testicle.Suppuration is accompanied by skin hyperemia, with a touch( palpation) - acute soreness.With an abscess, there is a decrease in sperm production, which can lead to secretion infertility.
Chronic inflammation of the testicle has a mild symptomatology.It is accompanied by unstable and aching pains, which most often occur as a result of hypothermia or after considerable physical exertion.The testicle is slightly enlarged and compact, with palpation slightly painful.The temperature rarely rises to 38 ° C.The poorly expressed symptoms of such orchitis, and mild discomfort, cause the unwillingness of patients to seek medical help.But violations of the secretory function of the testicle often cause male infertility.
In most cases, for an experienced specialist, diagnosing orchitis is not difficult.It is established on the basis of a survey and examination of the patient.Laboratory and instrumental studies are required to identify the causes of inflammation of the testicle and establish a method of treatment.
One of the first:
- general blood test - helps to determine the severity of the flow of orchitis, the degree of inflammation.Indirectly may indicate a probable pathogen;
- general analysis and bacteriological examination of urine - to identify and character of inflammation in the genitourinary system.Determination of the type of microorganisms and their sensitivity to antibiotics;
- smear from the urethra - studies can identify the pathogen, assess the extent and nature of the inflammatory process;
- analysis of seminal fluid - reveals the presence of pathological microorganisms, provides information on the ability to fertilize, the state of spermatozoa.
Instrumental medical studies may include ultrasound diagnostics and magnetic resonance imaging.The first relates to rapid methods and allows you to immediately determine the prevalence of inflammation, foci, shape and size of the lesion in the testicle.The second gives a more accurate picture, determine the stage of the disease, reveal even minimal purulent foci.
Traditional medicine against orchitis
With accurate diagnosis of the disease and its easy flow part of the complex therapy can become traditional medicine.They are applied externally or inward.On the affected area are bandages made from field horsetail.To do this, the ground grass in the form of a compress is applied to a cotton cloth and gently fixed.
Also in the treatment of orchitis folk methods effective ointment based on propolis with the addition of chicory and barberry ordinary, horse sorrel, crocheting creeping grass, marsh ale, dandelion medicinal, elecampane high, burdock grass.For 120 g of hot bee glue 3 g of powder of herbs and the same amount of dried mother's milk are taken.The composition is mixed and placed in the refrigerator for 5-6 hours.After that, it is ground, placed in warm fat of poultry or petrolatum and thoroughly mixed.The finished ointment is applied to the inflamed area for at least 6 hours. It has a complex effect: antitoxic, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, antiseptic, and restorative.
Traditional medicine for the treatment of orchitis recommends taking in water for 4-5 times a day herbal decoctions and infusions.
The most effective decoctions and collections include:
- collection from the herb of St. John's wort, lingonberry leaves, chamomile flowers and elderberry black, black poplar buds;
- decoction of the roots of flax;
- infusion of herbs of wintergreen, sporis and sweet clover, leaves of cranberries and birch, flowers of chamomile medicinal, cucumbers swamp and rose hips.
Conservative treatment of orchitis
To achieve a positive result, it is important to create favorable conditions for treatment.To those in the first place include bed rest from the first days of acute course of the disease.It is very important to minimize movement in the scrotum area, for this purpose a special supporting bandage( suspension) is used.To reduce stagnant phenomena and improve blood circulation in the genital area and pelvic floor, angioprotectors( escusan, venoruton, Agopurin, Dartilin, etc.) are prescribed.
Treatment of orchitis can be conditionally broken down into separate stages, which are performed sequentially or in parallel:
- Removal of the cause of the disease - in case of detection of an infectious agent, the patient is prescribed antimicrobial therapy.Appoint appropriate means of a wide spectrum of action( fluoroquinolones or macrolides).If a microbiological study showed the presence of a particular pathogen, then a specific drug is selected, aimed at its elimination.
- Elimination of pain symptoms is performed with the help of various analgesic medicines( ketorolac, ketoprofen, analgin, etc.), in rare, especially complex cases, a novocain blockade is used.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs( diclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen, etc.) are used to stop the growing destructive effect of the processes occurring;
In mumps orchitis, a frequent complication is epididymitis( inflammation of the appendage of the testis with a violation of its patency).Therefore, in this case, the introduction of prednisolone is prescribed in the early stages of the disease.
It is also possible to use physiotherapy to treat orchitis.It helps reduce the inflammatory process, limit the spread of infection, activate local defense mechanisms.With its help, specialists can significantly speed up the recovery process. In the treatment of chronic form of orchitis, the following are often used:
- mud and mineral baths;
- exercise therapy;
- reflex and electrotherapy.
If conservative treatment of orchitis does not bring the required results, then the question of surgical intervention is raised.The indications for its implementation are:
- tuberculosis nature of the disease;
- frequent exacerbations in chronic form of orchitis;
- tissue suppuration;
- acute form, developed as a result of the injury;
- severe course of the disease, etc.
Depending on the complexity of the case, surgical intervention can be performed in several ways.With the least consequences for the functioning is resection - removal of the inflamed part of the testicle.With insufficient thoroughness of the operation and in the case of a number of other factors, complications and relapses are possible.In severe purulent lesions - orchiectomy - removal of the testis and appendage.If the operation affects both organs, this leads to a significant decrease in the level of male sex hormones and infertility.Also, the attending physician may suggest other methods of performing a surgical procedure.
Prevention and possible consequences
To avoid complications and development of orchitis, it is important not to initiate chronic inflammation of the genitourinary system.For a timely start of treatment, you should consult a specialist at the first symptoms.An additional examination of the genitals is required after the flu, pneumonia, mumps and scarlet fever.It is also desirable to visit a doctor after a pelvic, perineal or scrotum injury.
Studies show that acute bilateral bark orchitis in 50% of cases can lead to complete loss of reproductive abilities.
Illiterate or inadequate treatment is also the cause of :
- shrinkage - decreases in the size of the testicle;
- spreads of inflammation to the epididymis and paired organ;
- suppuration of testis tissues - a limited focus or many small ones can be transformed into a complete diffuse festering;
- Reactive hydrocephalus - a fluid accumulation between the testicles.
Orchitis is a disease that, with insufficient or incorrect treatment, can lead to serious complications, including infertility and libido reduction.Therefore, timely medical assistance is important.
Chumachenko Olga, medical reviewer