White stripes and spots on the nails - causes, diagnosis and treatment
Mar 25, 2018
White stripes and spots on the nails in the scientific literature are designated by the term "leikonichia".These pathological changes of the nail plate are not considered as an independent disease, but may indicate negative changes occurring in the body.Table of contents: Why do white streaks and spots appear on the nails?How to get rid of stains and streaks on the nails?
Why do white streaks and spots appear on the nails?
It is customary to single out 2 varieties of leukonichia - true and false.In the first case, the strips appear due to disorders occurring in the matrix of the nail plate.But in most cases, there is a false species caused by various diseases and disorders of .If, when looking at your nails, you notice strips or spots, be sure to visit a doctor.It is strongly recommended to undergo a comprehensive examination in order to identify the real cause of such changes.
The immediate cause of the changes is a violation of keratinization( keratinization) of the
According to the current classification, according to the prevalence of the process, 2 types of leukonichia are identified:
- limited( partial disturbance of keratinization on 1-2 nails);
- total( affects the entire nail or plate of all fingers).
Possible causes of false leukonichia:
- deficiency of minerals;
- lack of amino acids in the diet;
- abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract( dysbacteriosis, enteritis, colitis, etc.);
- anemia( anemia);
- heart failure;
- mechanical damage;
- fungal diseases;
- kidney pathology;
- severe liver damage( cirrhosis, hepatitis);
- metabolic disorders;
- hormonal imbalance;
- malfunctioning of the nervous system( chronic fatigue, stress, etc.);
One of the common reasons for the appearance of white spots and strips on the nails is the observance of strict restrictive diets .The body lacks essential amino acids, vitamin compounds, macro- and microelements( in particular - phosphorus and calcium). If the cause of leukonichia are the alimentary factors( nutritional errors and diets), paired transverse strips often appear.With seasonal deficiency of vitamins appear single, and with prolonged hypovitaminosis - multiple specks.
Individual defects that do not appear again after a nail growth, indicate a temporary and not very significant lack of vitamins. A serious cause for concern is strips and stains occupying more than 20% of the area of the plate.
Leukonichia occurs not only against the background of a deficiency of vitamins, but also with their excessive alimentary intake( hypervitaminosis).
Note: often leads to the relative incompatibility of certain substances in the appearance of leuconichia.The composition of many vitamin-mineral supplements is far from ideal;Do not take a variety of dietary supplements without first consulting a doctor.
The state of the nails is adversely affected by functional disorders of the digestive system. If the process of assimilation of nutrients is disturbed, the body begins to lack water and fat-soluble vitamins( A, E, B, ascorbic acid).Nail plates change with a lack of selenium, zinc, iodine, silicon and iron.
Important: dashes in most cases have a transverse direction.Longitudinal strips can be associated with protein deficiency.
White strips on the nails - evidence of depletion of the nervous system .Leukonichia is often diagnosed in patients suffering from neuroses, or surviving shock states.Changes in nail plates are revealed in persons who are subject to psychoemotional stresses and who complain of chronic fatigue. For nervous exhaustion and depression, the appearance of a large stain in the central part of the plate is characteristic.
Diseases of the digestive system are accompanied by total leukonichia.
The appearance of white strips is accompanied by fungal lesions of .The nail plate often turns yellow and slightly softens.
In chronic renal failure, white spots appear on the lower part of the nail;The top of the plate has the normal color .
Too high blood glucose level affects the condition of the nail.On the background of violations of the metabolism of carbohydrates there are specks or small dashes. One of the causes of false leukonichia is diabetes.
For the diseases of the cardiovascular system, single or multiple spots appear, and the nail plate visually has a bluish
Important: in some cases, leukonichia is one of the signs of dysfunction of the respiratory system.It is detected in some people suffering from chronic lung diseases.
False leukonichia is very often diagnosed in children and adolescents under 15 years of age.Most of them experience a periodic lack of vitamins and trace elements due to the active growth of the body .In addition, metabolic processes in children are not as well balanced as in adults.Another cause of changes in the nail plate can be a hormonal imbalance, characteristic of the puberty period.
Dashes on the nails are revealed in most pregnant women .Their appearance is due to deficiency of calcium, iron and zinc, since a significant part of the micronutrients supplied with food goes to the formation of organs and systems of the unborn child.
Leukonichia often provokes regular work with aggressive chemicals( detergents, organic solvents) without gloves.
In women, the problem can arise if the cuticle is cut too often to the base or poor-quality manicure, a violation of the technology of gluing of artificial nails, etc. For leukonychia, traumatic origin is characterized by separate points and spots( rarely - strips) with a chaotic arrangement.
Important: in the course of differential diagnosis leukonichia is important to distinguish from the so-called.Strips of Maya - transverse dashes of white and blue color, up to 5 mm in length.They are one of the symptoms of poisoning with heavy metals( thallium) or arsenic.
The appearance of white streaks or spots on the toenails can be caused by mechanical stress( pressure) when wearing tight shoes( for example, shoes with narrowed noses).
How to get rid of stains and streaks on the nails?
To cope with false leukonichia, you need to eliminate the cause of its appearance.When detecting streaks and spots, you need to undergo a comprehensive diagnosis.
Note: in some Asian countries( particularly in China), nail inspection is an obligatory procedure for visiting a doctor, the same as measuring a pulse or blood pressure.Doctors of the East several thousand years ago discovered the relationship between many somatic diseases and the state of nail plates.
The nail plate grows on average for 6 months.Thus, the identification of leukonichia indicates problems that have occurred only recently, or are still present.
Some reasons are often called "lying on the surface", and it's relatively easy to deal with them. If you adhere to a strict diet, consult a dietitian, and make adjustments to your diet for the treatment and prevention of hypovitaminosis and minerals deficiency. It is recommended to include in the menu more fresh greens - parsley, celery, spinach, etc., as well as fruits( preferably - local "seasonal", since they have the highest content of vitamins).The diet should be enriched with animals and vegetable proteins.Try to consume more milk and dairy products( cottage cheese).
On the recommendation of a doctor, you can take pharmacy multivitamin complexes .The main thing is not to exceed the prescribed dosages in order not to provoke hypervitaminosis.
For chronic injuries of the nail plates, try to visit the nail salon less often, and observe extra care when treating nails and cuticles.
If the problem lies in the disorders of the nervous system, the situation is somewhat more complicated.Of course, to get rid of chronic fatigue and other consequences of stresses, you need to take a vacation and, if possible, change the situation. Normalization of the work and rest regime is the basis for the prevention of neurological disorders .With some problems( in particular - the consequences of the impact of a strong psychotraumatic factor), it is almost impossible to cope without the help of a specialist. To normalize the work of the nervous system, it may be necessary to have sessions with a psychotherapist and drug therapy with sedatives( sedatives) and tranquilizers.
In the detection of diseases of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular or urinary system, treatment of pathology is performed by a specialized specialist.
If the appearance of longitudinal or transverse white stripes and spots on the nails is accompanied by symptoms such as itching, burning and the appearance of skin cracks around the nail, it is probably a fungal disease . In such cases, you need to get to the dermatologist as soon as possible.During the diagnosis, the type of fungus is determined, which allows you to designate the most effective drug to combat it.
To accelerate the process of growing a healthy plate, it is useful to use locally vegetable oils - almond or peach .Very useful pharmacy oil solutions of vitamins A and E and fish oil - they are advisable to apply on the nails before going to bed.Inside, you can additionally take the complex drug Aevit.To improve the condition of nails, it is recommended to make daily medical baths for hands.In the water, add a decoction of oak bark, sea salt( 1 tsp per liter), iodine or infusion of chamomile flowers.The duration of each procedure is 10-15 minutes.
It is useful to rub a warmed mixture of lemon juice and olive oil into the nail( the ingredients are taken in equal amounts).
Prescription for therapeutic varnish:
Take 2 Aevita capsules, 2 drops of 5% tincture of iodine and 25 ml of olive oil.Mix the ingredients and apply the product on the nails before bed with a soft brush.
Prevention of leconichia suggests:
- timely diagnosis and treatment of somatic diseases;
- observance of the working and rest regime;
- proper nutrition;
- use of protective agents for handling aggressive substances;
- compliance with personal hygiene( to prevent fungal infection);
- wearing comfortable shoes of "own" size;
- careful manicure.
Vladimir Plisov, medical reviewer