Pathological changes in stool and ways of treatment
All characteristics of the stool in the infant, which are within the normal range, have been described in detail in the article under this link.In this material, changes in the stool in infants, related to the pathological group - their basic characteristics and methods of treatment, will be considered.Table of contents:
Constipation of infants
To determine that the newborn has started constipation easily:
- no bowel movement day or more, but if the child's stool was normal not more than once 1-2 days,This indicator does not play any role;
- defecation is difficult, accompanied by crying and crying of the baby;
- the child is ineffective tuzhitsya - it is clear that the baby is making efforts to evacuation of the intestines, but the stool does not come out;
- the stool consistency becomes dense, it can be "sheep" feces.
There are some reasons for constipation in infants - knowing them, it will be faster to help the child. The main causes of constipation in early childhood include:
- insufficient milk from the mother;
- underdevelopment of the digestive system;
- developing acquired or congenital abnormalities of the digestive system;
- improper feeding of the baby - for example, cow's milk, inappropriate lactation and so on;
- diseases not related to the digestive system - for example, rickets, diseases of the central nervous system and others;
- causes organic nature - Hirschsprung's disease, intestinal obstruction and others;
- little physical activity of the child.
How to help infants with constipation
If constipation occurs in a child sharply( suddenly), then the first thing to do is debug the process.Observe the baby and as soon as you see that the baby starts to push, lift the legs, bend it in the knees and press it to the stomach for 10 seconds, then massage the baby's belly clockwise for 10 seconds and repeat the exercise with the legs.
If this method does not help, then you can put the baby a glycerin candle or make microclamation "Mikrolaks" - these funds should be in the first-aid kit of the mother of the newborn.There is no such stock?So, put him an ordinary enema with the help of the smallest syringe - the temperature of the water should be within 22 degrees, water should be taken only boiled.You can try reflexively cause bowel movement - insert the tip of the enema or gas tube( into the anus at minimum depth)( only lubricate them with medical Vaseline or baby cream) - the sphincter will relax, the feces will begin to depart.
Often, constipation in infants is accompanied by difficulties in the departure of gazikas - this can be determined by the way the tummy of the baby is swollen, active rumbling is heard against the background of straining.You can help the child by pressing the legs to the tummy, by massage the abdomen, it is advisable to lay the babe on the stomach or vilify it on the handles in the position "on the stomach"( the child is placed on the forearm of the parent), press against him, apply a warm diaper to his tummy.If these measures do not help within 30-60 minutes, then it is necessary to use already specific medicines - Espumizan, Bobotik and others.Often, from increased gas formation and constipation, a decoction of fennel and dill water helps.
Note: for chronic constipation does not need to use enemas and medications at all times, as this can be addictive.It is necessary to establish the cause of such a digestive system disorder, to take professional measures - it is advisable to call a doctor.
Treatment of chronic constipation in infants is the use of complex therapy: correction of nutrition of the mother or competent selection of milk formulas, correct and timely introduction of lures, outdoor walks, special gymnastics and massage.It is extremely rare for chronic constipation in early childhood appointed any medications - only in the case of diagnosing any serious pathology.
Diarrhea in infants
Diarrhea( diarrhea) can be considered as a 2-fold increased number of bowel movements in the infants, the stool in this case will be liquid, with an admixture of a small amount of mucus.It is not considered to be diarrhea, the excretion of feces with each withdrawal of gases - this is due to the underdevelopment of the sphincter, but as the child grows, this phenomenon disappears.
Causes of diarrhea in infants and methods of treatment
On the basis of what happened digestive disorder, and the baby developed diarrhea, the way to treat the baby will also depend.
Response to teething
Against the background of an increased number of bowel movements per day( up to 12 times), the child's body temperature rises to 38 degrees, salivation is noted, and swollen and reddened gums are identified.Than to help: give the child a sufficient amount of liquid, if necessary use antipyretic drugs, use specific drugs - for example, dental gels for relieving pain and swelling of the gums.
Acute intestinal infection
Diarrhea can vary from moderate to plentiful.The feces will be watery, frothy, flakes can be present in it, the body temperature rises, the child has vomiting, the baby becomes sluggish, refuses to eat.Than to help: every 5 minutes you need to give your child 1 teaspoon of boiled water and immediately call a doctor at home.
Note: in feces with acute intestinal infection may contain impurities of blood, pus.This is a signal for an immediate call of a doctor, and before your arrival, you can not give your child even water.
The stool of the baby becomes foamy and liquid, but the color remains yellow without any admixtures, the smell of the feces is pronounced sour, the babies will begin to disturb frequent colic.Than to help or assist: if the described signs of a lactose failure are shown neintensivno, any measures to undertake it is not necessary.If you determine obvious violations of the digestive system, then you need to see a doctor - most likely, will be assigned to enzymatic means.
The stool will be liquid, with the presence of white lumps or particles of undigested food, the feces come out with a pronounced fatty luster.Such changes are noted immediately after a meal, there may be one-time vomiting or profuse regurgitation.Than to help: it is necessary to correct a mode of a delivery of a babe - if the complementary feeding has been entered, it is necessary to refuse it, to supervise hours of feeding, to try to replace a mix at artificial feeding.It is highly desirable to invite a doctor to the child.
Changes in stool occur immediately after taking medications - for example, after antipyretic, antibacterial.Long-term therapy with antibiotics can cause dysbiosis, against which diarrhea develops.Than to help: you can not do anything to your parents - you need to call your doctor and get advice about adjusting therapy, changing drugs.
Dysbacteriosis of the intestine
Develops against the background of long-term use of certain drugs or regular violations of the diet / diet. Infants are diagnosed on the basis of laboratory tests, but in children under 3 months of age such diagnostics may not give accurate, reliable results.Than to help: treatment is spent only on purpose of the doctor, most often babies with the expressed symptoms of a dysbacteriosis of an intestine make out on a hospital in medical institution.
Irregular chair in infants
An irregular chair in infants can be considered a condition in which constipation alternates with diarrhea, or a normal stool alternates with one of the manifestations of an intestinal disorder.As a rule, such a condition is associated with mismanagement of the child, incorrect and untimely introduction of complementary foods.
Mom should pay attention to her own food - you may have to go on a diet, exclude from the menu meat and fish fatty varieties, some fruits and vegetables, eat only cereals and soups on vegetable broths.The second step is to monitor the diet of the baby itself: feeding hours, the amount drunk / eaten, a more careful choice of foods for complementary foods.
If no action leads to stool stabilization, then you need to contact a specialist for a child's examination and treatment.
Changing the number of chairs
As a rule, the amount of stool is different in two cases:
- feces are small, it is either very dense and dense, or accompanied by the exit of a solid "plug" and then a liquid stool;
- large amount of feces watery, foamy, with impurities of white lumps and undigested food pieces.
In both cases, the cause of the change is a violation of diet and / or diet.
Note: if there is a large amount of excreted feces with impurities of blood, pus, fat, then this is the reason for an immediate call of a doctor.
The fact that the green color of the stool and the variable yellow is the norm was mentioned in the article on the characteristics of the normal stool of babies( reference).But there are other options for changing the color of feces in early childhood - they all point to the development of severe pathology.
Serious symptom that may indicate bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract.This condition can be accompanied by a pronounced pallor of the skin of the baby, lethargy of the baby, vomiting with an admixture of scarlet blood.
Black feces may appear in the child and for quite dangerous reasons:
- the baby swallows blood when breastfeeding, if the mother has cracks in the nipples;
- the child takes iron preparations.
In no case should you take any action with black feces in the baby - urgently call a doctor, and before his arrival, fix the clinical picture, as accurate explanations of the development of the disease will help the specialist correctly and as quickly as possible to diagnose.
It will be white in color, and this color change in the feces will be indicative of the development of one of the following pathological conditions:
- mechanical jaundice;
- atresia of bile ducts;
- anomaly of the structure of the ducts of the pancreas.
All these conditions require the intervention of professionals - the child is placed in a medical institution and already there, after a complete examination, the doctors select the treatment.
When to contact a doctor
Parents should know exactly what changes in stool need to be called to the ambulance team, even without waiting for the pediatrician to come home:
- feces are black, but only in thatCase, if the baby does not take iron preparations;
- diarrhea, accompanied by high body temperature and repeated vomiting;
- colorless( white) feces, if it is accompanied by yellowness of mucous membranes and sclera;
- in the feces reveals blood or scarlet "fibers";
- instead of feces, mucus of pink color appears in the bowel movement;
- Acute deterioration of the condition of the infants against a background of diarrhea or constipation.
The baby's chair can tell a lot about his health, so you just need to be careful and fix even minor violations.If the stool has changed, and there is no simple explanation for this phenomenon, you should seek help from a pediatrician.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category