Symptoms of Lyme disease
Mar 29, 2018
Lyme disease is a transmissible disease caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia.It is difficult to give an exhaustive answer about the prevalence of the disease.Lyme disease in medical literature is called a "great imitator."This name is due to the fact that the disease is accompanied by a polymorphism of symptoms, and patients turn to a dermatologist, neuropathologist, rheumatologist and rarely go to the infectious diseases room.
Lyme disease is registered in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia.There is a tendency to increase the incidence in the territory of Russia and Ukraine.The susceptibility to Borrelia in humans is high.So, Lyme's disease became known to such famous personalities as Ben Stiller, Christy Turlington, Richard Gere, Avril Lavigne, Ashley Olsen.Table of contents:
The causative agent of the disease is bacteria of the genus Borrelia( B.burgdorferi, B. afzelii, garinii) belonging to the family Spirochaetaceae.The bearer of Borrelia is the Ixodes ticks( I.ricinus, I.pacificus, I.damini).The infected tick is contagious at any active stage of its life cycle: at the stage of the larva, the nymph or the sexually mature specimen.
A person becomes infected by borrelia through a bite with an infected tick when the wound gets on the skin of the arthropod.There is also a contaminating transfer mechanism, when during the scratching of the skin a person rubs the contents of the squashed mite into the wound.In addition, in medical practice, precedents of transmission of infection from mother to child through the placenta are described.
The rise in the incidence of Lyme disease is observed in the spring-autumn period, which, of course, is due to the high activity of mites during this season.Ixodid mites live in forests, forest-parked urban areas.
Symptoms of Lyme disease
The incubation period on average is one to two weeks, but it can increase even up to a year.In the clinical picture of Lyme disease, it is customary to distinguish three stages.But it is worth noting that not all cases in an infected person develop all three stages.Thus, in some patients the disease ends in the first stage, in others it becomes pronounced only in the third stage.
Symptoms of the first stage
A papule appears at the site of the tick bite( nodule).Gradually, the reddening area expands around the periphery.The edges of the erythema are intensely red, somewhat rising above the skin.In the center of the erythema, the skin is paler.The stain resembles a ring in appearance, which is why it was called migratory ring-shaped erythema.This symptom occurs in approximately 60-80% of infected people.
Dimensions of erythema are 10-50 cm in diameter. Often erythema is localized on the lower limbs, abdomen, waist, neck, axilla and groin.Skin in the area of erythema is warmer in comparison with healthy areas of skin.Sometimes there is itching, burning in the bite.The spot persists for several days, then gradually fades, leaving pigmentation and peeling.
In some patients, a benign lymphocytoma appears - a moderately painful red compaction on the swollen skin.Most often, the lymphocytoma is localized in the ear lobes, nipples, face, genitals.
Borrelia from the primary site of the lesion spread through the lymphatic vessels to the regional lymph nodes.So, lymphadenopathy can be observed.
In addition, an infected person can complain about weakness, muscle and headaches, fever.
The duration of the first stage varies from three to thirty days.The outcome of this stage can be either recovery( with the timely initiation of therapy), or transition to a subsequent stage.
Symptoms of the second stage
Borrelia are disseminated into organs and tissues.Thus, secondary erythema, a roseous or papular rash, new lymphocytomas can form on the skin.
Generalization of the infectious process is accompanied by headache, muscle pain, nausea( less often vomiting), in some cases, fever.
For this stage, the following syndromes are characteristic:
More often the signs of the second stage arise on the fourth-fifth week and persist for several months.
Meningeal syndrome is a consequence of serous meningitis.This condition is characterized by fever, severe headache, pain when looking up, vomiting that does not bring relief, sensitivity to light, sound stimuli.
Nasal stiffness and other typical meningeal signs are recorded.
Also, a person can develop encephalitis or encephalomyelitis, proceeding with paraparesis or tetraparesis.Neuritis of the cranial nerves, more often of the auditory and oculomotor nerves, is possible.
Patients may have sleep disorders, emotional lability, anxiety, short-term vision and hearing impairment.
Lyme disease is characterized by lymphocytic meningoradiculoneuritis of Bannavart characterized by development of cervicothoracic radiculitis, meningitis with lymphocytic pleocytosis.
Cardiac syndrome is often formed on the fifth week of the disease and manifests itself as a violation of atrioventricular conduction, slowing or increasing heart rate, signs of myocarditis or pericarditis.It is worth noting that the defeat of the heart is noted less often than the nervous system.In addition, conjunctivitis, iritis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, hepatitis, splenitis can be observed.
At this stage of the disease, patients can observe joint, muscle pains, but there are no signs of inflammation in the joints yet.Symptoms of the second stage of Lyme disease can occur without previous ring-shaped erythema, which greatly complicates the diagnosis of the disease.Symptoms of the third stage
Symptoms of this stage appear rather late: after a few months, and sometimes even years after infection.