Heavy metal salt poisoning: symptoms and treatment
Jun 07, 2018
Any poisoning is a serious test for the human body, which most often requires the provision of qualified medical care.But doctors say that one of the most dangerous and complex poisonings is associated with salts of heavy metals - the body "absorbs" these compounds in small doses, accumulates them in tissues and organs - this subsequently disrupts the functionality of the entire organism, but to quickly remove the poison from the bodyIt will not work, it's already accumulated!
Doctors warn that poisoning with salts of heavy metals can be diagnosed at an early stage, but only if a person pays attention to the primary symptoms of the condition in question.It is the early diagnosis of poisoning with salts of heavy metals that allows you to make favorable predictions of the state.
There are more than 40 metals that can lead to poisoning. mercury, lead, metallic arsenic, zinc, cadmium are considered to be the most dangerous( they also most often appear in the patients' cards).As a rule, poisoning occurs with extensive accidents in specific industries, but in this case, it will be a matter of acute poisoning.With regard to chronic poisoning with salts of heavy metals, it can occur with a person who is not associated with the chemical or metallurgical industry - heavy metals are present in refined products, some agricultural processing agents, tobacco smoke and even some food products!
Symptoms of poisoning with heavy metal salts
There are a number of common symptoms that are typical for a clinical picture of salt poisoning of any heavy metal. These include:
- disorders of the digestive tract : bloating, regular intestinal colic of unexplained etiology, alternating diarrhea and constipation, frequent nausea and vomiting;
- problems in the nervous system : the sensitivity decreases( the sufferer begins to not distinguish between the flavors, can not feel hot and cold, etc.), problems in the psychoemotional background( unstable mood, outbreaks of unmotivated aggression and irritability, depressions or,On the contrary, excessive excitability and so on).
But there are also symptoms that will be characteristic only for poisoning with a particular metal.
Mercury has a maximum damaging effect on the kidneys, liver and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, in case of chronic poisoning with salts of mercury, the following symptoms will be present:
- pains of different intensity in the abdomen( intestinal colic of unstable character and unknown etiology);
- problems with stools - can disturb both chronic constipation and frequent diarrhea;
- in the mouth is constantly present metallic taste;
- ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa are noted( in medicine it is called mercury stomatitis).
Often poisoning with salts of mercury affects the central nervous system - the patient can develop a stable tremor( trembling) of the upper limbs and mental overexcitation.In addition, it is for mercury poisoning that the enlarged lymph nodes, periodic seizures of unexplained etiology, spontaneous increase in arterial pressure, and profuse sweating are characteristic.
It always takes a heavy form and has a number of distinctive features:
- skin becomes gray-green;
- on the edge of the gums in the oral cavity appears a clear blue-lilac strip( border);
- there are signs of pathological damage to the kidneys( urination is disrupted, the body temperature rises, there are intense pains in the lumbar region, etc.);
- develops symptoms of the pathological damage of the liver quite quickly( skin and mucous membranes can acquire icteric tincture, there is always a bitter taste in the mouth, there are pains periodically in the anatomical location of the liver( hepatic colic)
- is diagnosed when taking blood tests for laboratory testingProgressive anemia;
- is a pathological lesion of the nervous system - can develop asthenic syndrome, polyneuritis and in some casesEven with encephalopathy,
- in women is disrupted by the menstrual cycle, and if at the time of poisoning there was a pregnancy, it can result in fetal death.
Arsenic poisoning by metal arsenic
This usually occurs whenInhalation of industrial dust, at home, such poisoning is not found. Symptoms of metal arsenic poisoning will be:
- of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and, as a consequence, a constant dry cough, chest pain with deep breaths;
- skin becomes dry, dermatitis and eczema can develop;
- there is abundant lacrimation;
- is often noted hemoptysis;
- damaged hair and nails - nails become thin, dry, often break, and hair - drop out in large quantities.
Antimony and cadmium poisoning
Such poisoning will be characterized by:
- dry skin;
- with a constant headache;
- the emergence of foci of inflammation in the oral cavity, which are the nature of sores and erosion.
Against the background of these symptoms, the victim has almost no appetite, he is concerned about frequent diarrhea - these two factors lead to a sharp loss of weight of the patient.
Note: these symptoms can develop rapidly, but can be of a non-intensive nature - it all depends on how much poison enters the body, how powerful the immune system is, how the liver and kidneys work, whether somaticChronic diseases in the victim.In any case, with the appearance of similar symptoms even of low intensity, you need to seek medical help - lotions, broths and tinctures will not help you .
Treatment for poisoning with heavy metal salts
If the clinical picture of poisoning with salts of heavy metals is always different depending on the type of poison, the principles of treatment are used in common.
First, the physician must determine exactly which poison enters / enters the body.It will need to be deleted and selected, in especially severe cases, an antidote.
Secondly, the patient is provided with a plentiful drink, additionally he is prescribed medications of a diuretic action - this will help to remove salts of heavy metals through the kidneys.Such a conclusion can be carried out with the help of enterosorbents - the patient will be assigned activated carbon, Magnesium sulfate, Xidiphon and other medications of this group.
Thirdly, it will be necessary to conduct a full examination of the patient and determine which organs and how much were affected by heavy metal salts.This will depend on further treatment.For example, if the liver has suffered the most from poisoning, then the therapy will be aimed at restoring the function of this particular organ.
In addition, the victim must adhere to a strict diet.And since the condition under consideration primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract, the restrictions in the diet will be quite a lot. Recommendations for dietary food poisoning with heavy metal salts:
- Do not get involved in meat and fish dishes - they should be cooked by steaming, or by the method of boiling and it is desirable to chop such food( not in mashed potatoes!).
- Milk and lactic acid products can be consumed in unlimited quantities, but only if diarrhea is not worried.
- Vegetables and fruits should be eaten raw and without restrictions - their fiber is able to "bind" the compounds of salts of heavy metals and remove them from the body through the intestines.
- Morse, a decoction of rose hips, fresh fruit compotes, freshly prepared juices( without preservatives) can be consumed in unlimited quantities - any liquid removes salts of heavy metals from the body.
- It is necessary to refuse coffee and strong tea.Naturally, under categorical prohibition there is also alcohol.
As for traditional medicine, it is powerless when poisoning with salts of heavy metals.Decoctions and tinctures can only be used as an auxiliary.For example, if the victim has ulcerative lesions in his mouth, rinsing the oral cavity with a decoction of chamomile will bring him relief, and if the patient is suffering from chronic constipation, then the oil made from pumpkin seeds will help.
Please note: folk remedies( even the best and "tested" by neighbors) can not be used for poisoning with heavy metal salts without first consulting your doctor.Even if a decoction of chamomile has always helped, not the fact that after the condition in question it will not cause a powerful allergic reaction - remember that the immune system is extremely exhausted and weakened in any poisoning.
In general, treatment for poisoning with salts of heavy metals is quite long, differs in complexity.But even after the stabilization of the state of health, the victim needs to undergo a rehabilitation period.
Firstly, if the characteristics of work activity( for example, the patient is working in a particular production) are brought to the state under consideration, then he will have to change the field of activity.
Secondly, periodically( at least 1 time in 6 months), the victim must visit medical institutions and undergo a complete examination - often poisoning with salts of heavy metals leads to the development of complex pathologies.
Third, even when recovering, do not abuse harmful products, alcoholic beverages - a dietician will help to adjust the diet.
The rehabilitation period for poisoning with salts of heavy metals implies the passage of sanatorium treatment - one should emphasize the stabilization and full restoration of the work of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, and if the "blow" falls on the central nervous system, it will be necessary to visit specialized sanatoriums and restoreHer work.
The poisoning with salts of heavy metals is quite a dangerous condition, which can lead to death if there is no qualified medical care.Therefore, ignoring the symptoms listed in the article is strongly discouraged.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification